Gilded age
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Gilded Age. Review Created By: Michael Crews. Politics. Political Machines – bought votes through providing services and jobs in the administration Political bosses – controlled the machine Spoils system – process of paying for votes through money, jobs, and services

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Gilded age

Gilded Age

Review

Created By:

Michael Crews


Politics

Politics

  • Political Machines – bought votes through providing services and jobs in the administration

    • Political bosses – controlled the machine

    • Spoils system – process of paying for votes through money, jobs, and services

    • Tammany Hall – Democratic Political Machine in New York City (William Tweed)

  • Presidents

    • Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison

    • All lacked personality

      • Called the “forgotten presidents”


Legislation

Legislation

  • Pendleton Act (1883) – reformed the spoils system

    • Created the Civil Service Commission

      • Hire federal employees based on exams and merit

  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act- purchased more silver for currency

  • McKinley Tariff – set import tax at around 50%


Industrialization

Industrialization

  • Second Industrial Revolution

    • Mechanization and marketing led to great wealth

      • If you could get people to purchase your mass produced goods you became incredibly wealthy

  • Transcontinental Railroad

    • Authorized by congress in 1862

    • Federally subsidized by the mile at first

    • Completed in 1869 @ Ogden, Utah

    • Built by primarily Chinese and Irish labor

    • Opened up the west to rapid expansion of population

    • Provided quick transportation of goods and raw materials to developing industrial centers


Important businessmen and ideas

Important Businessmen and Ideas

  • Vanderbilt – Railroad tycoon

  • Carnegie – Steel industry

    • Sold company to J.P. Morgan who developed the U.S. Steel Corporation

  • J.P. Morgan – Banking/Investing

  • Rockefeller – Oil

    • Created Standard Oil Company

  • Vertical Integration – combing companies that supply equipment, services and resources for a particular product

  • Horizontal Integration – combining all other companies in a particular industry


Social ideas and business regulations

Social Ideas and Business Regulations

  • Interstate Commerce Act (1887)

    • Outlawed railroad rebates and kickbacks

    • Created Interstate Commerce Commission

      • Monitored railroad companies for compliance

  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)

    • Outlawed monopolies

  • Social Darwinism

    • The idea that people succeed based on natural selection or ‘survival of the fittest’

    • The ‘Gospel of Wealth’

      • God had given them riches for the genius and/or tenacity

    • The opposite of this is that poor or unsuccessful people were ungodly or biologically inferior


Labor movement

Labor Movement

  • National Labor Union (NLU)

    • Represented both skilled and unskilled labor to factory owners

  • Knights of Labor

    • Another labor union

    • It allowed blacks and women to join

      • NLU did not

  • American Federation of Labor (AFL)

    • Large organization that coordinated efforts of many smaller unions


Strikes

Strikes

  • Railroad Strike of 1877

    • Threatened second 10% pay cut for workers

  • Coeur d’Alene Strike (1892)

    • Silver miners’ wages slashed

      • Miners blew up the mine

  • Homestead Strike

    • Steel workers protested lowered wages

    • Won a victory after clashing with 300 detectives

  • Pullman Strike

    • Pullman railcar company employees wages cut 30%

    • Eugene Debs organized the strike

      • 150,000 union members refused to work

      • Delayed service as far away as California

    • Grover Cleveland sent federal troops to break up strike


Social issues

Social Issues

  • Immigration

    • Push Factors

      • Avoid forced military service

      • Avoid religious persecution

      • Poor economic situation

    • Pull Factors

      • Better jobs

      • Religious freedom

      • Ability to improve social standing

    • Negative reactions

      • Nativists did not feel that immigrants would never assimilate into the ‘American’ culture

    • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 banned Chinese immigration until 1943

    • Rapid urbanization

      • Along with native peoples, immigrants settled into the industrialized cities

      • Lack of adequate housing led to ‘slums’


More social issues

More Social Issues

  • Equal Rights

    • Women demand right to vote

      • Elizabeth Cady Stanton

    • African Americans continued fight for their rights

      • Plessy V. Ferguson ( separate but equal) upheld

      • Booker T. Washington encouraged blacks to become economically self-sufficient before challenging whites on social issues

      • W.E.B. Du Bois argued that blacks should fight for social and economic equality at the same time


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