An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of...
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An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain. Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West. Slide background: http://sensicology.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/lamprey.jpg.

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Chelsea mandigo ryan patnaude audrey reid elias rosenblatt and emily west

An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain

Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West

Slide background: http://sensicology.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/lamprey.jpg


Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • Introduction to include problem statement and objectives

  • Background of sea lamprey in lake Champlain and life cycle

  • Are sea lamprey native?

  • Sea lamprey affect of sport fishery

  • TFM and application

  • Non target effects of TFM

  • Cost-benefit analysis

  • Recommendations/questions


Problem statement

Problem Statement

The lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol, (TFM) is a controversial chemical used for controlling sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Champlain watershed.


Objectives

Objectives

  • To determine the chemical effects of TFM on sea lamprey and its corresponding aquatic environments

  • To investigate the nativity of sea lamprey, and how a potential native status would affect public opinion of the sea lamprey control program

  • To evaluate the effect of sea lamprey on sport-fish species in Lake Champlain

  • To understand the effects of TFM on non-target species

  • To analyze the cost-benefit ratio of using TFM in the Lake Champlain Basin


Background

Background

  • Sea lamprey are parasites preying on cold water fish species

  • Brown trout, Lake trout and Landlocked Salmon

  • Fish will eventually die from excessive bleeding or infection

Source: NY DEC


Sea lamprey life cycle

Sea Lamprey Life Cycle

TFM targets juvenile sea lamprey within streams

Majority of life cycle is spent as larvae/transformers (3-7 years)

Mature adults reenter streams to lay eggs

NY DEC


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain

Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain?

  • For years, the general scientific consensus was that sea lamprey were an invasive species.

  • The first confirmed identification was in 1930, long after canals were constructed in the mid- 19th century.

  • Invasion aided by the Champlain canal to the Hudson River and/or the Chambly canal to the Richelieu River.

  • Natural dispersal still possible before canal construction, through the Richelieu River.

  • To determine the status of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain, genetic studies were conducted


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain1

Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain?

  • Waldman et al. (2006) analyzed mitochondrial DNA from individuals from the Atlantic, lakes Champlain, Ontario, and Superior.

  • Champlain population were genetically distinct from the other sampled populations.

  • Atlantic and Champlain populations were most closely related, but each gene pool had unique haplotypes, suggesting that enough time had passed for the Champlain gene pool to drift.


Genetic distances between sea lamprey collections from neighboring water bodies

Genetic distances between sea lamprey collections from neighboring water bodies

Source: Waldman et al. 2006


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain2

Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain?

  • Bryan et al. (2005) conducted a microsattelite DNA analysis

  • Concluded that the differences in genotypes between Atlantic and Champlain populations were far greater than what could have developed since the construction of the canals.

  • Bryan et al. (2005), as well as other studies (Marsden et al. 2003 and Waldman et al. 2006), hypothesized that the sudden population explosion in the mid-20th century was due anthropomorphic alterations to the lake.

  • Bryan et al. (2005) also hypothesized that the first sighting was so recent due to the population being regulated by predators prior to removal in the 20th century.


Chelsea mandigo ryan patnaude audrey reid elias rosenblatt and emily west

Genetic distances between several sea lamprey populations in the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Atlantic.

Source: Bryan et al. 2005


Are sea lamprey native to lake champlain3

Are Sea Lamprey Native to Lake Champlain?

  • These findings provide substantial genetic evidence that the Lake Champlain population is native, but do not settle the debate

  • Many parties still feel that the abundance of man-made entry points and the lack of sightings before the population increased in the lake point to the species as invasive.

  • Even if the species is native, many stakeholders find the species a nuisance as it effects valuable sport fisheries in the lake.

  • Though population suppression will probably continue, these findings may shift stakeholder and managerial opinions on the extent of the suppression.

  • This shift needs to be accounted for in long-term treatment plans


Sea lamprey affect on fish

Sea Lamprey Affect on Fish

  • Attach host fish , drain bodily fluids, killing the fish

  • Studies in Great Lakes show fish wounded by sea lamprey have a 40-60% mortality rate

  • Preferred hosts: landlocked Atlantic salmon and lake trout

  • Also feed on lake whitefish, walleye, northern pike, burbot and lake sturgeon

  • Problem: Many of these fish species are 1) native to Lake Champlain 2) highly prized sport fish


Lake champlain fishery

Lake Champlain Fishery

  •  Currently: angling of sport fish

  • Most popular species being walleye, yellow perch, basses, and pikes

  • Popular stocked sport fish: Lake trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon and brown trout


Sea lamprey affect on sport fish

Sea Lamprey Affect on Sport Fish

  • Study conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife comparing pre and post experimental control of sea lamprey

  • Examined gill net catch rates and wounding data from the mid 1980’s (prior treatment) for the Main Lake portion of Lake Champlain, Lake Ontario and Cayuga Lake.


Lake champlain main lake

Lake Champlain: Main Lake

Source: State of the Lake Report, Lake Champlain Basin Program 2008


Lake ontario

Lake Ontario

Source: http://www.classicbuffalo.com/images/outdoors/LakeOntarioMap.jpg


Cayuga lake finger lake in ny

Cayuga Lake, Finger Lake in NY

Source: http://www.byways.org/explore/byways/57183/travel.html


Study pretreatment results

Study: Pretreatment Results

  • 1974-1984: Total incident of attack (including wounds and scars) for all size trout averaged 85%, wounding rate averaged 50%.

    • lake trout 13-16.9 inches: wounding rate of 20%

    • lake trout 25-28.9 inches: wounding rate of 50%


Study pretreatment results1

Study: Pretreatment Results

  • Gill net catch rates indicated

    • 6-13 lake trout/1000 feet of net in Lake Champlain

    • 60-70 lake trout/1000 feet of net in Lake Ontario

    • 45-66 lake trout/ 1000 feet of net in Cayuga Lake

  • Stocking rates:

    • Lake Champlain: 1.6 yearling lake trout/acre

    • Cayuga Lake: 1.7 yearling lake trout/acre

    • Lake Ontario: 0.5 yearling lake trout/acre

  • low catch rate for Lake Champlain in comparison to stocking rate of lake trout


Sea lamprey affect on sport fish1

Sea Lamprey Affect on Sport Fish

  • Results of study indicated that sea lamprey were negatively effecting the lake trout and Atlantic salmon populations

  • Lead to an 8 year experimental control program that examined the effectiveness of lampricide treatments at reducing sea lamprey populations

    • Began in 1990


Experimental control program

Experimental Control Program

  • As part of the program a pre and post treatment creel survey was conducted

    • found an estimated 76% increase in lake trout caught in Lake Champlain


Long term control program

Long-term Control Program

  • Began in 2002

    • Involved: Treating 13 tributaries with TFM and 5 tributary deltas with Bayer 73

  • Goal: Reduce the number of wounding rates by sea lamprey to

    • > 25/100 lake trout

    • 15/ 100 Atlantic salmon.


Current sea lamprey levels

Current sea lamprey levels

  • 2006: highest sea lamprey wound rate was observed in 2006 with 100 wounds/100 lake trout

  • 2007: sea lamprey populations in 18 out of 31 streams and 2 out of 4 deltas being controlled

  • 2007: 46 wounds/100 lake trout and

  • 2008: 31 wounds/ 100 lake


Chelsea mandigo ryan patnaude audrey reid elias rosenblatt and emily west

The number of Atlantic salmon and lake trout in Lake Champlain with wounds (both scar and actual) from sea lamprey

Source: : Lake Champlain Basin Program; State of the Lake Report 2008


Historical use of tfm

Historical Use of TFM

  • 1950’s 6,000 possible chemicals tested at Hammond Bay Biological Station

  • Chose: 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol and Bayluscide (5,2’-dicholoro-4’nirosalicylanilide)

  • Criteria for selection: maximize lamprey kills and minimize fish kills

  • Regulated by the EPA


Chemical composition of tfm

Chemical Composition of TFM

  • Non-volatile

  • Organic matter increases biotic break-down in sediment

    • Most tests show breakdown to

      undetectable levels to occur

      within hours and at most days

www.fluoridealert.org


Concentration of tfm vascular plants and sediment

Concentration of TFM, vascular plants and sediment

(Hubert, 2003)


Ph and toxicity

pH and Toxicity

  • pH affects toxicity

  • As pH decreases (becomes more acidic) half life increases

  • Toxicity is higher at lower pH


Lc 50 and ph

LC 50 and pH

(Hubert, 2003)


How most organisms deal with tfm

How Most Organisms deal with TFM

  • Most organisms able to reduce TFM into RTFM (4-amino-3-trifluoromethylphenol)’

    • Nontoxic, stable compound-

    • Glucuronidation: metabolic detoxifying process of the liver

    • Major enzyme in breakdown: UDPGT- relatively inactive in sea lamprey as compared to other aquatic species


How tfm works in sea lamprey

How TFM Works in Sea Lamprey

  • Disrupts ATP production- Remember UDPGT isn’t binding to it and breaking it down

  • Causes Mortality by: depleting PCr (mechanism unknown)

    • Forces anaerobic glycolysis to continue ATP production

  • Lamprey are unable to

    detoxify the chemical

    before brain is sufficiently

    depleted of glucose=Death


Atp concentration and pcr depletion after 12 hrs of exposure

ATP concentration and PCr depletion after 12 hrs of exposure

Wilkie et al., 2007


Application pre treatment

Application: Pre-Treatment

  • Determine areas of spawning that will have high density of larval sea lamprey at time of treatment

  • Notification of residents- regular advisories prior to application

  • Regular water testing (pH, alkalinity etc.)


Application treatment

Application: Treatment

  • Solution pumped through perforated hose

  • 12hr exposure

  • Use with niclosamide- spot treatment

  • Boosts

  • Monitor rivers and lakes until TFM is undetectable


Tfm application source www dec ny gov

TFM applicationSource: www.dec.ny.gov/


Non target effects

Non-target Effects

  • Was determined in 1960’s as less environmentally detrimental than physical means of removing lamprey

    • Even though the chemical mechanisms were not understood


Non target organisms

Non-target Organisms

  • Lake Sturgeon http://www.tnaqua.org/Newsroom/Images/sturgeon.jpg


Catfish family http www statesymbolsusa org images missouri channel catfishwiki2 jpg

Catfish Familyhttp://www.statesymbolsusa.org/IMAGES/Missouri/channel_catfishWiki2.jpg


Chelsea mandigo ryan patnaude audrey reid elias rosenblatt and emily west

Mudpuppieshttp://animals.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/animals/images/primary/mudpuppy.jpg


How is sensitivity determined

How is sensitivity determined

  • MLC = Minimum Lethal Concentration

  • Compare MLC of TFM on lamprey to other fish species

  • Example:

    • Lake Sturgeon has TFM MLC of 1-2 times that of Lamprey

    • Catfish TFM MLC 1.3-1.5 times


Problems for non target species

Problems for Non-target Species

  • TFM is often over-applied to increase lamprey mortality, thus TFM concentration reaches MLC for other non-target species

  • Not enough information available about effects on other non-target species, especially invertebrates


Case study mudpuppy die off in lamoille river

Case Study: Mudpuppy Die-off in Lamoille River

  • Over-use of TFM in Lamoille River lead to mass die-off of mudpuppies in Fall 2009

  • http://www.timesargus.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=BT&Date=20091009&Category=NEWS02&ArtNo=910090322&Ref=AR&Profile=1003&MaxH=290&MaxW=445

  • Reported by Times

    Argus (Rutland, VT)

    on October 9, 2009


Cost benefit analysis

Cost-Benefit Analysis

  • Analysis indicated a 3.5 – 1 ratio indicating that TFM is successful

  • Sea lamprey control benefits of $29.4 million – cost of treatment $8.4 million

  • Difficult to place monetary values on the environment

  • However…

  • Adaptation resulting in quicker time to reach transformer stages (Zerrenner and Marsden)

  • Increased treatments resulting in higher economic funding, may alter analysis


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Continue use of TFM, partnered with increased environmental monitoring

  • More precise application, to reduce fatality of non-target species

  • Further research on TFM chemical mechanisms, to see if modifications can be made

  • Further research on effects of TFM on non-target species


Videos

Videos

  • Lampricide added to Lamoille River

  • Same treatment that caused mass mud puppy die-off

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=81wCa2zduBM

  •  PSA on Lamprey

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-KJZ22-wTQ


Sources

Sources

Bryan, M. B., Zalinski, D., Filcek, K. B., Libants, S., Li, W., & Scribner, K. T. (2005). Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes. Molecular Ecology, 14, 3757-3773. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Web of Science database.

Waldman, J. R., Grunwald, C., & Wirgin, I. (2006). Evaluation of the Native Status of Sea Lampreys in Lake Champlain Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing Analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135, 1076-1085. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Web of Science database

Hubert, T.D. 2003. Environmental Fate and Effects of the Lampricide TFM: a Review. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 29(supplement 1):456-474.

Wilkie, M.P., Holmes, J.A., and Youson, J.H. 2007. The Lampricide3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) interferes with intermediary metabolism and glucose homeostasis but not with ion balance, in larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.. 64: 1172-1182

McDonald, G.D., & Kolar, C.S. (2007). Research Guide to the Use of Lampricides for Controlling Sea Lamprey. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33(2), 20-34.

Brege, D.C., Davis, D.M., Genovese, J.H., McAuley, T. C., Stephens, B. E., & Westman, R.W. (2003). Factors responsible for the reduction in quantity of the ampricide, TFM, applied annually in streams tributary to the Great Lakes from 1979 to 1999. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 500-509

Waller, Diane L., Bills, Terry D., Boogaard, Michael A., Johnson, David A., & Doolittle, T.C.J. (2003). Effects of Lampricide Exposure on the Survival, Growth, and Behavior of the Unionid Mussels Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 524-551.


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