An Ecological Risk Assessment on the Use of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) for the Control of Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain. Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West. Slide background: http://sensicology.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/lamprey.jpg.
Chelsea Mandigo, Ryan Patnaude, Audrey Reid, Elias Rosenblatt and Emily West
Slide background: http://sensicology.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/lamprey.jpg
The lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol, (TFM) is a controversial chemical used for controlling sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Champlain watershed.
Source: NY DEC
TFM targets juvenile sea lamprey within streams
Majority of life cycle is spent as larvae/transformers (3-7 years)
Mature adults reenter streams to lay eggs
Source: Waldman et al. 2006
Source: Bryan et al. 2005
Source: State of the Lake Report, Lake Champlain Basin Program 2008
Source: : Lake Champlain Basin Program; State of the Lake Report 2008
undetectable levels to occur
within hours and at most days
detoxify the chemical
before brain is sufficiently
depleted of glucose=Death
Wilkie et al., 2007
Argus (Rutland, VT)
on October 9, 2009
Bryan, M. B., Zalinski, D., Filcek, K. B., Libants, S., Li, W., & Scribner, K. T. (2005). Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes. Molecular Ecology, 14, 3757-3773. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Web of Science database.
Waldman, J. R., Grunwald, C., & Wirgin, I. (2006). Evaluation of the Native Status of Sea Lampreys in Lake Champlain Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing Analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135, 1076-1085. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from the Web of Science database
Hubert, T.D. 2003. Environmental Fate and Effects of the Lampricide TFM: a Review. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 29(supplement 1):456-474.
Wilkie, M.P., Holmes, J.A., and Youson, J.H. 2007. The Lampricide3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) interferes with intermediary metabolism and glucose homeostasis but not with ion balance, in larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.. 64: 1172-1182
McDonald, G.D., & Kolar, C.S. (2007). Research Guide to the Use of Lampricides for Controlling Sea Lamprey. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33(2), 20-34.
Brege, D.C., Davis, D.M., Genovese, J.H., McAuley, T. C., Stephens, B. E., & Westman, R.W. (2003). Factors responsible for the reduction in quantity of the ampricide, TFM, applied annually in streams tributary to the Great Lakes from 1979 to 1999. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 500-509
Waller, Diane L., Bills, Terry D., Boogaard, Michael A., Johnson, David A., & Doolittle, T.C.J. (2003). Effects of Lampricide Exposure on the Survival, Growth, and Behavior of the Unionid Mussels Elliptio complanata and Pyganadon cataracta. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 524-551.