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FPG. F R E D E R. I C K P H I L I P G R O V E. Felix Paul Greve. Frederick Philip Grove’s “Rousseau als Erzieher” (1914): Nietzsche’s influence on FPG in Munich & on the Prairies. by Gaby Divay for the 2008 LCMND Conference in Winnipeg (hosted by the UM).

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FPG

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Felix Paul Greve

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Frederick Philip Grove’s“Rousseau als Erzieher” (1914):

Nietzsche’s influence onFPGin Munich & on the Prairies

by Gaby Divayfor the 2008 LCMND Conferencein Winnipeg (hosted by the UM)

grove s first canadian publication
Grove’s First Canadian Publication
  • Frederick Philip Grove’s first Canadian publication was the essay “Rousseau als Erzieher”
  • It was published in four parts from Nov.-Dec. 1914 in the German-Canadian newspaper Der Nordwesten
  • “Fred Grove”, a teacher in Winkler, was the author

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

fred grove was felix paul greve
“Fred Grove” was Felix Paul Greve
  • Fred Grove was born Felix Paul Greve in 1879
  • He had spent a year in Bonn prison for fraud in 1903/4
  • He left Berlin in late July 1909 with a faked suicide [after double-selling his Swift translation]
  • He spent three years in the United States before settling in Manitoba as Grove in 1912

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s rousseau als erzieher
Grove’s “Rousseau als Erzieher”
  • Margaret Stobie found the “Rousseau” essay while preparing her 1973 book on Grove in the “Twayne World Authors series”
  • Also in 1973, D. O. Spettigue published his discovery that Grove had been Greve in his FPG: the European Years

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

greve s first publication 1901
Greve’s First Publication, 1901
  • Like Stobie’s, Spettigue’s research papers are part of the UM Archives’ FPG Collections
  • Among his many documents by or about Greve is a 1901 review of Nietzsche’s Posthumous Works, v. XI +XII, in a Munich newspaper
  • This is FPG’s first known publication

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

fpg s first publications 1901 1914
FPG’s First Publications, 1901 & 1914
  • Neither FPG scholar was aware of the other’s Nietzsche link to Greve & Grove
  • And neither one pursued the interesting implications of their own respective finding

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s canadian essays
Grove’s Canadian Essays
  • The title of Grove’s rambling “Rousseau als Erzieher” is a clear reference to Nietzsche’s 3rd Untimely Meditation (1874)
  • ITS title was “Schopenhauer als Erzieher” (Sch. as Educator)
  • Grove wrote several more essays with titles like “Rebels All”, “Civilization”, “Of Science”, & “Of History”

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s canadian essays1
Grove’s Canadian Essays
  • All imitate the loud cultural criticism of Nietzsche’s Meditations in form & content
  • They were edited in Henry Makow’s unpublished Ph.D. thesis in 1982
  • Makow dates them to ca. 1919
    • That is four years after “Rousseau” & three years before Grove’s first book of nature essays Over Prairie Trails in 1922
  • He fails to appreciate the Nietzsche echoes resounding in them

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

greve s german essays on oscar wilde
Greve’s German Essays on Oscar Wilde
  • Grove’s essays resemble Greve’s on Oscar Wilde & decadence
    • A major source of inspiration for these was Nietzsche\'s Geburt der Tragödie
  • Axel Knönagel nicely shows how GREVE’s outlook changed before and after his prison term in 1903
    • in his published Thesis, Nietzschean Philosophy in the works of FPG, 1990
  • He does, however, not link his astute observations to GROVE’s Nietzsche-inspired texts
    • The “Rousseau” text & Makow’s essays in the UM Archives were apparently unknown to him

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s canadian aphorisms
Grove’s Canadian Aphorisms
  • Among other Grove manuscripts reflecting Nietzsche’s influence stand foremost sixty confessional aphorisms entitled “The Life of Saint Nishivara”
  • The title alone identifies them as the Zarathustra (1883ff) imitation they are
  • They were published in 1987 in A stranger to my time: Essays by and about FPG

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s canadian aphorisms1
Grove’s Canadian Aphorisms
  • The editor, Paul Hjartarson, does NOT see the obvious Nietzsche parallels
  • Nietzsche was famous for his aphoristic style inspired by moralists like Montaigne
  • “Saint Nishivara” is, like Zarathustra, written in aphorisms
  • Hjartarson also misses the biographical pointers FPG couched in his text
  • We shall later return to this fragment

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s six german poems
Grove’s Six German Poems
  • Many of Grove’s poems also have Nietzschean overtones
  • His six German ones emphasize the “special” individual (FPG), unfettered by ordinary rules
  • “Kopfschmerz”, “Das Fieber…”, and “Apokalypse” are typical for applied “Jenseits von Gut & Böse / Beyond Good & Evil” (1886) ethics

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s english poems
Grove’s English Poems
  • Grove’s English poem “Ahasuerus” exploits the motif of Greve’s 1902 poetry title Wanderungen.
  • His long “Legends” continue the narrative vein of “Irrfahrt” & “Sage” in Greve\'s 1902 collection
  • Both draw on Nietzsche’s “Der Wanderer & sein Schatten” (1880)

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s english poems1
Grove’s English Poems
  • The epic fragment “Konrad the Builder” exploits Goethe\'s Faust motif
  • It joins Nietzsche\'s Promethean theme which FPG also uses on more than one occasion
  • Nietzsche was fond of Goethe in general & Faust in particular
  • He also championed Flaubert who became FPG\'s post-prison model in 1904

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

nietzsche concepts in both fpgs
Nietzsche CONCEPTS in both FPGs
  • Some Nietzschean key concepts found in both FPGs\' poetry & prose are:
  • Heraclitean CHANGE being the nature of all things
    • (Nietzsche, like FPG, was a Classicist educated at Bonn University. His Thesis was on the Skeptic Diogenes Laertius)
  • This view fosters RELATIVITY & propagates SKEPTICISM
    • Skepticism dominates neo-Kantians like Vaihinger (Philosophy of AS-IF) & Dilthey
    • Relativity is evident in physicists likeEinstein, Mach, Schrodinger, Planck, & Heisenberg

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

nietzsche concepts in both fpgs1
Nietzsche CONCEPTS in both FPGs
  • DECADENCE
    • Nietzsche saw his times in sad decline, especially, when compared to Antiquity
  • ETERNAL RETURN
    • This belief attributed to Heraclitus fosters a cyclical world-view, & also dominates artistic form: poetry cycles (Stefan George) & musical ones (Richard Wagner)
  • LIFE …
    • has priority over Art, the noblest art being the Art of Living
    • Greve reverses O. Wilde’s Art/Life poles in prison in favour of Life
  • THE TRAGIC (in Geburt der Tragödie)
    • Nietzsche’s views of rivaling “Dionysian” & “Apollonian” forces are embraced by many, incl. FPG, & Thomas Mann (who sees them at work in Grove\'s Two Generations in 1939)

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

nietzsche topics in both fpgs
Nietzsche TOPICS in both FPGs
  • Some of Nietzsche’s pet topics commonly found in both FPGs poetry & prose are:
  • The “GENIUS” being above the law
    • Faust & Prometheus are typical figures
  • MASKS & LYING as approved tools of dissimulation
    • These themes are prominent in O. Wilde
  • Dual SLAVE & MASTER standards
  • An elitist CONTEMPT for the “Herd” or the Masses"

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

nietzsche topics in both fpgs1
Nietzsche TOPICS in both FPGs
  • A pronounced distrust of PROGRESS,
    • especially, if technology-based
  • A COSMOPOLITAN outlook fostering tolerance
    • (goes together with Skepticism)
  • A belief that WOMEN snare the Genius
    • … and keep him from realizing his mission

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

nietzsche s pervasive influence
Nietzsche’s pervasive Influence
  • Nietzsche was the foremost philosopher of DECADENCE and LIFE (Lebensphilosophie)
  • His impact on FPG’s entire generation cannot be over-estimated
  • Recently, FPG’s debt to him has come into sharp focus
  • A volume of sixty early manuscript poems by Greve was discovered & acquired by the UMA in March 2008

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

greve s first poetry book nov 1901
Greve’s First Poetry Book, Nov. 1901
  • Completed in Nov. 1901, Das Jahr der Wende opens with four poems about Nietzsche
  • In Greve’s Wanderungen (23 poems, Feb. 1902), Nietzsche, the painter Böcklin, the poet Stefan George, and Beethoven are hailed as “Masters” – in this order!
  • Only Böcklin & Nietzsche then have an entire poem devoted to them

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

greve s first poetry book nov 19011
Greve’s First Poetry Book, Nov. 1901
  • It is interesting that Das Jahr der Wende reflects the unstructured style of Nietzsche\'s "Dionysos Dithyramben"
  • They concluded the Zarathustra complex in 1888, just before Nietzsche suffered the mental breakdown that ended his career
  • In contrast, Greve’s Wanderungen show the mark of the so-called Stefan George-Mache, a formally rigid way of crafting poetry

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s indirect nietzsche hints
Grove’s indirect Nietzsche-Hints
  • Greve wrote FIVE poems about Nietzsche
  • In comparison, ALL of Grove\'s Nietzsche pointers are covert & indirect
  • We saw his sly title reference to Nietzsche in the 1914 "Rousseau" essay
  • Das Jahr der Wende / Year of the Turning Point also echoes a title:
    • Grove chose The Turn of the Year (1923) for his 2nd Canadian book
    • He thus pointed to the poems he had written in Jahr der Wende two decades earlier

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s confessional aphorisms
Grove’s confessional Aphorisms
  • Back to Grove\'s “Saint Nishivara” aphorisms: they are a confession in the disguise of Nietzsche’s Zarathustra
  • Theycan be datedinternally to 1939:
  • 30 years the hero spent “in the East”, another 30 “in the West”
  • Both times he became entangled in sin …
  • Greve left Berlin when he was 30 in 1909, & at 60 he mused about his life in 1939

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

grove s aphorisms 1939
Grove’s Aphorisms, 1939
  • 1939 marks a period of intense Soul-Searching for Grove
    • Around his birthday in mid-February 1939, he sends two of his books to Thomas Mann at Princeton
    • He revises & expands his “Author’s Note” for the 1939 ed. of ASA with explicit references to Goethe\'s Dichtung & Wahrheit/Fact & Fiction
    • Gide’s autobiography & fame provides the impetus to start is autobiography ISM

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

more traces of nietzsche in fpg s poetry
More Traces of Nietzsche in FPG\'s Poetry
  • While preparing the 2007 e-Edition of FPG’s complete poetry, two of Greve’s poems in Wanderungen warranted a link to Nietzsche
  • One was to the moving “Die Sonne sinkt”, the other to “Aus hohen Bergen”
  • Both the day/life & the mountain metaphors were used repeatedly in Grove\'s poetry

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd

nietzsche in grove s autobiography
Nietzsche in Grove’s Autobiography
  • Two years before his death, in In Search of Myself (1946), Grove acknowledged his great admiration for Nietzsche
  • He insists that he preferred the "early" Nietzsche
  • And he obscures the fact that he made lavish use of Nietzsche’s late & most literary Zarathustra

LCMND, Sept 2008 gd