Philosophy and the proof of God's existence. Is Religion Reasonable? Faith Seeking Understanding. Philosophy and the proof of God's existence. There are many traditional "proofs" for the existence of God, and we will look at three of them: The ontological argument The cosmological argument
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Philosophy and the proof of God's existence
Is Religion Reasonable?Faith Seeking Understanding
The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm (1033-1109)
P1: “God” means the greatest conceivable being
P2a: A being that exists in one’s mind and in reality (outside of one’s mind) is greater than one that exists only in one’s mind
P2b: A necessarily existing being is greater than a merely possible being
Objections to Anselm’s Argument
The Cosmological Argument: St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)
Resulted from Aquinas’ study of the cosmos
There must be an ultimate cause for the motion that exists in the universe. It is God.
There must be an uncaused cause that started the causal chain in the universe
Things in nature can exist or cease to exist.
Something can start to exist only through the actions of things that already exist. e.g. Making babies, planting seeds.
There must be something which derives its existence from itself and not from something else - GOD
The perfect values must exist in order for the “partial values” to resemble them.
We strive for perfection, the perfect ideal must exist in order for us to strive for-GOD
God is the supreme wise intelligence in whom all order in the universe originates.
The universe is perfect, ordered and purposeful, because God designed it to be so.
Hume’s Criticisms of the Cosmological Argument
The argument from Design
The Teleological Argument: Argument from Design/Purpose
(A posteriori vs. a priori argument)
Criticisms of the Teleological Argument: David Hume
Criticism of the Design Argument:Charles Darwin