Carbon capture from air
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Carbon Capture From Air. Megan Logue. Questions. Is a .1 M or a 1 M solution of sodium hydroxide more effective at extracting carbon dioxide from air? Will carbon dioxide be removed from air more effectively by sodium hydroxide at 16°C or 32°C?. Background Research.

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Carbon Capture From Air

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Carbon capture from air

Carbon CaptureFrom Air

Megan Logue


Questions

Questions

  • Is a .1 M or a 1 M solution of sodium hydroxide more effective at extracting carbon dioxide from air?

  • Will carbon dioxide be removed from air more effectively by sodium hydroxide at 16°C or 32°C?


Background research

Background Research

  • The increasing amount of CO2in the Earth’s atmosphere has the potential to severely harm the environment and affect society.

  • The purpose of carbon capture is to remove CO2 that would otherwise build up in the atmosphere.

  • One method of carbon capture is the implementation of artificial trees in the environment.

    • An artificial tree operates by enabling air to filter through its structure and removing the air’s CO2 with a sorbent material, such as sodium hydroxide, or NaOH.

  • The initial pH value of a solution of NaOH will decrease as it captures CO2 from air.

  • This change in pH can be used to determine exactly how many molecules of CO2 are extracted from air over a period of time.


Carbon capture from air

http://a57.foxnews.com/images/590838/450/350/0_22_synthetic_trees_400.jpg


Background research1

Background Research

  • A solution of NaOH and water can be used to extract CO2 from air. The reaction between a solution of NaOH and CO2 is as follows:

    • CO2+ H2O H2CO3

    • NaOH + H2CO3NaHCO3 + H2O

    • NaHCO3 + NaOH Na2CO3+ H2O

  • Overall reaction:

    • CO2+ 2 NaOH = Na2CO3 + H2O

  • This indicates that for every two moles of NaOH, one mole of CO2 is extracted from air.


Hypothesis

Hypothesis

  • As the concentration of the NaOH solution increases, the amount of CO2 removed will increase as well.

  • Also, as the temperature of the system increases, the amount of CO2 extracted from the air will also increase.


Materials

Materials

  • 2 L of 1 M solution of NaOH

  • 2 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks

  • 2 100 mL graduated cylinders

  • 2 aquarium pumps

  • 2 stirring rods

  • Small weights

  • Water bath

  • Incubator

  • 2 Vernier pH probes

  • 2 Vernier temperature probes

  • Logger Pro Date Logger

  • Computer

  • Water

  • Paper towels

  • Safety gloves

  • Safety goggles

  • Safety apron

  • Calculator

  • Sink


Procedure

Procedure

  • A .1 M solution of NaOH and a 1 M solution of NaOH were prepared in separate Erlenmeyer flasks. Both flasks were placed in the water bath set at 20°C.

  • A tube connected to an aquarium pump, a Verniertemperature probe, and aVernier pH probe were placed in each flask.

  • The probes were set to collect samples at increments of 10 minutes over a time period of 24 hours with Logger Pro Data Logger.

  • After 24 hours, the collected data was recorded. The procedure at 20°C was repeated twice to perform a total of three trials.

  • Next, an incubator was set at 40°C. The .1 M and 1 M solutions of NaOH were placed in the incubator. A tube connected to an aquarium pump, a Vernier temperature probe, and a Vernier pH probe, were placed in each flask.

  • Once the temperature of each flask was stable at 40°C, the data collection was promptly started on Logger Pro Data Logger. After 24 hours, the collected data was recorded. The procedure at 40°C was repeated twice to perform a total of three trials.

  • After each trial was successfully completed, the changes in the pH of the solutions over time were calculated. Mathematical models were used to determine the amount of CO2 molecules extracted from the air and removed by each solution.

  • The final results of the experiment were compared and analyzed.


Variables

Variables

  • Independent Variables

    • Temperature

    • Concentration of NaOH solution

  • Dependent Variable

    • Amount of CO2 removed

  • Constants

    • Erlenmeyer flasks, aquarium pumps, Vernier temperature probes, Vernier pH probes, stirring rods, small weights, Logger Pro Data Logger, computer


Average decrease in ph

Average Decrease in pH

Average Decrease in pH at 16°C

Average Decrease in pH at 32°C


The following calculation was used to determine the grams of co2 removed by each naoh solution

The following calculation was used to determine the grams of CO2 removed by each NaOH solution:

  • .1 M at 16°C - Trial 3

  • pH = -log[H3O+]

  • Initial pH: 13.02

  • [H3O+] = 10-13.02 = 9.54992586 x 10-14

  • [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 / [ H3O+] = .1047128548

  • End pH: 10.26

  • [H3O+] = 10-10.26 = 5.49540874 x 10-11

  • [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 / [ H3O+] = 1.8201385 x 10-4

  • Initial [OH-] – End [OH-] = (5.49540874 x 10-11) – (1.8201385 x 10-4)

  • Initial [OH-] – End [OH-] = .104530841 mol OH- removed

  • mol OH- removed / 2 = .104530841 / 2

  • = .0522654205 mol CO2 removed

  • 1 mol CO2 = 44g

  • 44g x mol CO2 removed = 44 x .0522654205

  • = 2.299678502g CO2 removed by 100 mL of .1 M NaOH at 16°C


Average grams of co 2 removed

Average Grams of CO2 Removed


Sources of error

Sources of Error

  • Stabilizing temperature

  • Limited materials

  • Evaporation of the NaOH solutions over the 24-hour time period

  • Time restrictions


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • At 16°C, the .1 M NaOH solutions were more effective than the 1 M solutions.

  • At 32°C, the .1 M solutions produced similar results, but the 1 M solutions removed more molecules of CO2. The final results suggested that the 1 M solutions were more effective at 32°C.

  • This refutes the hypothesis that the CO2 extracted would increase as the concentration of the NaOH solution increased.

  • It was also hypothesized that the CO2 extracted would increase as the temperature of the system increased. This was rejected for the .1 M solutions but accepted for the 1 M solutions.

  • Lower concentrations of NaOH are likely to be more effective at cooler temperatures, and greater concentrations of NaOH at warmer temperatures.

  • Further Research

    • Cost-effectiveness, carbon disposal and storage, different concentrations of NaOH solutions


References

References

  • Climate Change Information Sheet 22 [Information sheet]. (2011). Retrieved October 17, 2011, from United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change website: http://unfccc.int/_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/_change_information_kit//.php

  • 8 Extreme Solutions to Global Warming. (2009, December 4). Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Fox News Network website: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,579373,00.html

  • General Overview: The Greenhouse Effect. (2002). Retrieved September 17, 2011, from University of California, San Diego website: http://earthguide.ucsd.edu///_1.shtml

  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions. (2011, April 20). Retrieved October 11, 2011, from United States Environmental Protection Agency website: http://www.epa.gov///.html

  • Greenhouse Gases. (2011, April 12). Retrieved October 16, 2011, from United States Energy Administration website: http://www.eia.gov//.cfm?page=environment_about_ghg

  • Health and Environmental Effects. (2007). Retrieved October 16, 2011, from United States Environmental Protection Agency website: http://epa.gov/imatechange//.html

  • IPPC Working Group II. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (M. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden, & C. Hanson, Eds.). (Original work published 2007) Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/_and_data/_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg2_report_impacts_adaptation_and_vulnerability.htm

  • Lackner, K. S., Grimes, P., & Ziock, H. (n.d.). Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air. Retrieved from National EnregyTechnology Laboratory website: http://www.netl.doe.gov////_seq/.pdf

  • Lenntech Index. (2009). Retrieved October 23, 2011, from Lenntech website: http://www.lenntech.com/.htm

  • Ophardt, C. E. (2003). Virtual ChemBook. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from Elmherst College website: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm//.html


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