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Eastern Hemisphere (Trade Patterns, Japan & Africa) Unit VIII. World History I Mr. Pawlowski 2010 - 2011. Trade Patterns: 1000 – 1500 CE. Silk Routes: Asia to the Mediterranean basin Maritime routes: across the Indian Ocean Trans-Saharan routes: across North Africa Northern Europe:

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Eastern Hemisphere (Trade Patterns, Japan & Africa) Unit VIII

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Eastern hemisphere trade patterns japan africa unit viii

Eastern Hemisphere(Trade Patterns, Japan & Africa)Unit VIII

World History I

Mr. Pawlowski

2010 - 2011


Trade patterns 1000 1500 ce

Trade Patterns: 1000 – 1500 CE

  • Silk Routes:

    • Asia to the Mediterranean basin

  • Maritime routes:

    • across the Indian Ocean

  • Trans-Saharan routes:

    • across North Africa

  • Northern Europe:

    • links between Baltic & Black Sea

  • Western European:

    • Mediterranean Sea and river trade

  • Southeast Asia:

    • South China Sea and land routes


Silk road

Silk Road


Trans saharan routes

Trans-Saharan routes


Eastern hemisphere routes

Eastern Hemisphere routes


Exchange of goods

Exchange of Goods:

  • West Africa:

    • Gold

  • Indian Ocean:

    • Spices

      • Zanzibar Archipelago (Spice Islands)

  • India, China, Middle East & Europe:

    • Textiles (silk, cotton, etc.)

  • India:

    • Sandalwood

  • Persia:

    • Porcelain, Saffron Powder, Pistachios

  • China:

    • Porcelain, Silk, Gun Powder

  • Baltic Region:

    • Amber


Exchange of technology

Exchange of Technology:

  • China:

    • Paper:

      • Into Europe via Byzantium and the Islamic Civilization

    • Compass

    • Mechanical Clock

  • India:

    • new crops & techniques

      • ex: for making sugar

  • Indian Ocean:

    • lateen sail

  • Middle East:

    • waterwheels and windmills


Exchange of ideas

Exchange of Ideas

  • Religions:

    • Buddhism:

      • Korea & Japan via China

    • Hinduism/Buddhism:

      • Southeast Asia via India

    • Islam:

      • West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia

    • Christianity:

      • Europe, Eurasia

  • Printing & Paper Money:

    • China

  • Culture:

    • art, architecture, music, dance, etc.

  • Languages


Geography

Geography

  • Japanese Archipelago:

    • est. 4,000 islands

      • Hokkaido

      • Honshu

      • Shikoku

      • Kyushu

  • Mountainous:

    • limited arable land:

      • 15% of land

    • limited natural resources:

      • coal, oil and iron

  • Bodies of Water:

    • Sea of Japan (East Sea)

    • Pacific Ocean

    • Yellow Sea

      • Natural Barriers

      • Isolation

  • Proximity to neighbors:

    • 120 miles – Korea

    • 500 miles – China


Influence of china

Influence of China:

  • Initial Contact:

    • Korean traders/travelers & immigrants

  • Prince Shotoku (574 – 622 CE):

    • 607 CE – initiated missions to study the Tang Dynasty in China

  • Buddhism:

    • Introduction(552 CE):

      • Korean king (Seong of Baekja) sent Buddhist monks to Japan

    • ‘Three Treasures Edict’ (594 CE):

      • official recognition of Buddhism by Empress Suiko

        • various schools are subsequently introduced and adopted

    • Relationship with Shinto:

      • rituals/beliefs coexist and/or merge

  • Writing:

    • adopt Chinese logographic characters (pictograph)

      • ‘kanji’

  • Additional Influences:

    • Art

    • Architecture

    • Government

    • Culture & Lifestyle

  • Japanese traditions remained as Chinese influence increased

    • formal missions to China end in the late ninth century


Shinto way of the gods

Shinto (‘Way of the Gods’)

  • Indigenous religious beliefs & practices of Japan

    • Intimately tied to Japanese society and culture

  • Characteristics:

    • no sacred texts

    • no founder or founding date

  • Beliefs:

    • Polytheistic:

      • ‘kami’ – spirits/natural forces

        • dwelled within nature

    • Positive view of human nature:

      • ‘man is kami’s child’

    • Ancestor Veneration:

      • adopted from Buddhism

    • ‘Imperial/State Shinto’:

      • worship of the emperor

        • divine origins of imperial family provides legitimacy

      • high point: 1868 - 1945

  • Coexists with Buddhism:

    • tendency to interpret Shinto from a Buddhist viewpoint

      • ex: view kami as incarnations of buddhas or bodhisattvas

    • not separate/competing faiths, but a single complex religious system


Feudal japan

Feudal Japan

  • Heian Period (794 – 1185 CE):

    • strong central government

      • Capital: Kyoto

    • landowners & clan chiefs begin to accumulate power

  • Feudal Japan (1185 - 1868 CE):

    • Society:

      • Peasants:

        • occupational class system:

          • Farmer

          • Craftsmen/Artisans

          • Merchants

      • Nobility

        • lords & warlords (daimyo) were given land for protection

      • Samurai:

        • loyal warriors/army who fought for their lord

          • Bushido: ‘way of the warrior’

        • top of the 4-tiered class system

    • Emperor & Shogun:

      • Emperor:

        • ceremonial figurehead

          • capital: Kyoto

      • Shogun:

        • political authority

          • shogun: general & military dictator

        • Capital:

          • Kamakura Shogunate: Kamakura

          • MuromachShogunate: Kyoto

          • Edo Shogunate: Edo (Tokyo)


African kingdoms

African Kingdoms


Axum 100 940 ce

Axum (100 – 940 CE)


Eastern hemisphere trade patterns japan africa unit viii

Axum

  • Location:

    • Ethiopian Highlands

      • South of Nubia (Kush)

      • Modern day: Northern Ethiopia & Southern Eritrea

    • Red Sea – East

      • Trade route linking India & Mediterranean

    • Nile River – North

  • Formation:

    • Merging of Arabs (Southwest Arabia) & Indigenous peoples (Kushite herders)

      • 1st King: Zoskales

  • Trade:

    • Exported:

      • Ivory, Frankincense, Myrrh & Slaves

    • Imported:

      • Textiles, Metal Goods, Wine & Olive Oil

  • King Ezana (Reign: est. 330 – 356 CE):

    • Conquest:

      • Southwest Arabia (Yemen) & Kush

    • Conversion:

      • Adopts Christianity and establishes it as the official religion

  • Contributions:

    • spread of Christianity:

      • Coptic Church of Egypt & Ethiopian Orthodox Church

    • written language:

      • Ge’ez

    • architecture:

      • stone & stelae

    • terrace farming

  • Decline:

    • Islamic conquest of the Red Sea and Northern Africa

      • forced into economic isolation

      • isolated from other Christian states

    • succeeded by the Zagwe Dynasty


Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

  • Zimbabwe:

    • Shona: dzimbadzamabwe

      • ‘Great Stone Houses’

    • Kalanga: nzi we mabwe

      • ‘Home Stead of Stone’

  • Location:

    • Zambezi & Limpopo Rivers

      • fertile grassland

    • Indian Ocean

      • Modern Day: Zimbabwe

  • Shona (Language: Bantu):

    • Agriculture:

      • raised cattle and farmed

        • peanuts, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, etc.

    • Wealth:

      • Trades Gold and Ivory

      • Taxes traders

        • becomes wealthy & prosperous

  • Capital:

    • Great Zimbabwe

  • Decline:

    • Eclipsed as a political & economic power by the Kingdom of Mutapa

      • founded by a Zimbabwe prince: NyatsimbaMutota

    • 1450 CE– Great Zimbabwe is abandoned

The Great Enclosure


West african kingdoms

West African Kingdoms

Kingdom of Ghana

Kingdom of Songhai

Kingdom of Mali


Ghana

Ghana

  • Ghana:

    • warrior king of the Soninke people

      • 1st: DingaCisse

  • Location:

    • Captial:

      • KumbiSaleh

    • sahel:

      • grassland transition between the Sahara (north) and Savannah (south)

    • Rivers:

      • Niger – East

      • Senegal – West

    • Modern Day: Mauritania & Mali

  • shift from agricultural kingdom:

    • Trade route control

      • Taxed good carried through territory

    • Introduction of the camel

  • Trade:

    • Arab & Berber traders crossed the desert (Trans-Saharan)

      • ‘camel train/caravan’

    • Gold for Salt:

      • Abundant supply of gold

        • Limited amount of salt

      • Salt: preservative & aid in preventing dehydration

  • Decline:

    • Muslims became a dominant economic/political force

      • 1076 CE: Almoravid conquest

    • Incorporated into the Kingdom of Mali


Mali 1230 1610 ce

Mali (1230 – 1610 CE)


Eastern hemisphere trade patterns japan africa unit viii

Mali

  • Sundiata Keita (1217 – 1255 CE):

    • founder of the Mali Empire

      • conquered: Kingdom of Ghana

    • mansa: ‘king of kings’ or ‘emperor’

      • promoted agriculture

      • reestablished the gold-salt trade

    • Capital: Niani

  • Mansa Musa (1312 – 1337 CE):

    • Characteristics:

      • skilled military leader

        • put down rebellions/expanded the empire

      • strong central government

        • centralized control over gold-salt trade

        • divided kingdom into provinces

    • Hajj:

    • gave away gold and traded gold for souvenirs

      • devalued gold in the region (Cairo, Mecca & Medina)

  • Timbuktu:

    • established as a city of trade & learning

      • attracted doctors, judges, religious leaders & scholars

      • constructed mosques, universities & libraries

      • center of Islamic learning & culture

    • IbnBattuta (1304 – 1368 CE):

      • Rihla

  • Decline:

    • Ineffective leaders

      • subject states break away

    • gold trade moved east

    • Berber conquest

    • rise of the Kingdom of Songhai


Songhai 1468 1591 ce

Songhai (1468 – 1591 CE)


Songhai

Songhai

  • Sunni Ali (Reign: 1464 – 1492 CE):

    • captured Timuktu & Djenne

      • gave Songhai control over the lucrative gold-salt trade

    • Capital: Gao

  • Askia Muhammad Toure (1442 – 1538 CE):

    • ‘Golden Age’

      • expanded the empire

      • divided the empire into provinces

      • established a bureaucracy

      • devout Muslim

  • Decline:

    • 1591 CE: Overthrown by the Sultan of Morocco

      • gunpowder & canons


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