The philippines
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THE PHILIPPINES. Sabah Khadri & Omar Massouh. BACKGROUND. Island country located in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific ocean. 7107 islands categorized under three main geographic divisions :Luzon , Visayas and Mindanao.

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THE PHILIPPINES

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The philippines

THE PHILIPPINES

Sabah Khadri & Omar Massouh


Background

BACKGROUND

  • Island country located in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific ocean.

    7107 islands categorized under three main geographic divisions :Luzon , Visayas and Mindanao.

    Capital city is Manila ,most populous city is Quezon City.

    Population - approximately 99 million people ,seventh most populated country in Asia , and 12th most populated in the world.

  • Approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), considered the 64th largest country in the world.

  • Colonized by the Spanish in 1951 and was a part of the Spanish Empire for over 300 years . Recognized as an independent nation after World War II .

  • Main ethnicity is Malay. Other than this, there are Chinese, Spanish, mixtures of these and some minorities


Politics governance

POLITICS & GOVERNANCE

  • Organized structure of presidential , representative and democratic republic wherein the president is both the head of the government and the state within a multi party system.

  • Bicameral congress of House of Representatives (lower house) and Senate (upper house)

  • PresidentBenigno Aquino III

    Vice PresidentJejomarBinay

  • Politics to a large extent is controlled by Strongman Politics and family ties that shape the country’s formal democracy.


Major challenges

MAJOR CHALLENGES

  • Poverty

  • Corruption in all levels of the government

  • Economy


Poverty

POVERTY

  • Since 1971 , the urban poor have become a rising share of the total poor population , but still two thirds of the poor live in rural areas. The depth of poverty is nearly 2 ½ times larger in rural areas than in urban areas.

  • The urban poor are concentrated in Luzon , while the rural poor live predominantly in Mindanao and Visayas.

  • It is projected that 16.6 percent of 100 million people would still be living in poverty in 2016, and the poverty rate is forecast to be 18- 20 percent by 2016 .


The philippines

  • Causes of Poverty :

  • Low to moderate economic growth for the past 40 years;

  • Low growth elasticity of poverty reduction;

  • Weakness in employment generation and quality of jobs generated;

  • Failure to fully develop agricultural sector;

  • High inflation during crisis periods;

  • High levels of population growth;

  • Recurrent shocks and exposure to risks

  • Factors constraining poverty reduction :

    Great inequality across income brackets , regions and sectors

    Unmanaged population growth


Corruption

CORRUPTION

  • Ranked 141 out of the 163 countries in the transparency internationals (TI) 2008 corruption perceptions index.

  • Corruption found at different levels :

    1. Political Corruption

    Electoral process plagued by corruption

    Corruption rampant among elected leaders

    2 . Patronage & State corruption

    3. Petty administrative /bureaucratic corruption


Sectors prone to corruption

SECTORS PRONE TO CORRUPTION

  • Political parties , civil servants and parliament legislation

  • Judiciary

  • Private sector and media

  • Police

  • Land services and registry

  • Education and health


A look at development before growth

A LOOK AT DEVELOPMENT BEFORE GROWTH

  • Human Development Index (HDI): 0.654 (2012)

    • Much improvement from 1980 (0.561)

  • Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): 0.064 (2012)

    • Niger – 0.642

    • Cambodia – 0.212

    • Vietnam – 0.017

  • Focus on 3 considerations

    • Health

    • Education

    • Standards of Living

United Nations Development Programme


An emerging economy

AN EMERGING ECONOMY…

  • General annual GDP growth

    • Business process outsourcing (BPO)

      • Specifically, offshore outsourcing

    • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

    • Remittances from abroad

    • Rich in valuable natural resources

      • Chromite, nickel, copper, coal, and oil


With great achievements

… WITH GREAT ACHIEVEMENTS…

  • Primarily export-orientated

    • Agricultural sector

    • Industrial sector

      • Manufacture and assembly of high-tech electronics for overseas corporations

    • Service sector

  • General GDP per Capita growth

    • Tendency to mislead

  • Significance of the Gini Coefficient

    • Distribution of income and consumption expenditure

    • 48.22 (2000) → 45.80 (2006) → 43.00 (2009)


But ongoing problems

…BUT ONGOING PROBLEMS

  • Persistent high unemployment rates

    • Unprecedented increase from 6.5 to 7.5% (January 2014)

      • Labor force of 41.2 million: 3 million unemployed residents

    • Causes

      • Corruption

        • Employers’ preference for relatives of ruling families, wealthy businessmen, etc.

        • Favorability towards urban residents (63% of population – 2012)

      • High population growth rate

        • 2.7% (1980) → 2.1% (2000) → 1.89% (2013)

        • Insufficient amount of jobs

          • Work abroad: underemployed, low wages, unsatisfactory working conditions

  • Middle-income trap

    • Gradual slowness of economic growth

    • Education Index – 0.679 (2012)

      • Lack of sufficient education for increased human capital

      • Lack of domestic entrepreneurial skill → Continued dependence of FDI


The miseries of the migrant domestic worker

THE MISERIES OF THE MIGRANT DOMESTIC WORKER

  • Home-care workers, maids, and house-keepers

    • Defined as having “moved to another country or region to better their material or social conditions and improve the prospect for themselves or their family,” International Labor Organization (ILO)

    • Constant unfair and unjust conditions by employers

      • Long-working hours (beyond contract-bound limits)

      • Low pay (below contract-set amount)

      • Physical & Sexual Violence

        • Escape employment

        • Suicide

  • Initiatives taking place

    • Philippine Department of Labor and Employment

    • ILO


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