Crossing the chasm business process to information system
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CROSSING THE CHASM Business Process to Information System. Reading Assignment Supplementary module 5. THE BRIDGES FROM INFORMATION SPACE. Information is the essence of an object Its meaning An abstract pattern of information in an abstract place We have named this place Information Space

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Crossing the chasm business process to information system

CROSSING THE CHASMBusiness Process to Information System

Reading Assignment

Supplementary module 5


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

THE BRIDGES FROM INFORMATION SPACE

  • Information is the essence of an object

    • Its meaning

      • An abstract pattern of information in an abstract place

        • We have named this place Information Space

        • Contains patterns of possibilities, the meaning of impossible and of meaninglessness itself

        • Carved from inchoate information by constraints; contains the meaning of constraint itself

  • Physical space and time are only one aspect, a facet of information space

  • Information is expressed in physical space with symbols

  • A physical object may be considered a format of the information it conveys

    • A manifestation of the information it conveys

  • Information space is also a hub that can sweep information from reality to information systems

INFORMATION SPACE

(A CONNECTING HUB)

INFORMATION SYSTEM

REAL WORLD

Abstract Meanings & Patterns that unify

Tangible Objects, Processes & Mechanisms

Tangible Information

Information Logistics,

Interface & Technology Layers


Perception and communication of meaning

Five fundamental formatting domains based on five senses

Visible (Visual) Formats: normalizes behavior common to visual perception

Eg: 3d, movement and rotation in space, viewpoints from different locations, color, size, contrast, brightness, etc.

Script: Written symbols such as alphabets, numerals and words

Graphics: diagrams, pictures etc.

Audible (Audio) Formats: normalizes behavior common to audible perception

Eg: loudness (volume), pitch

Tactile (Haptics) formats: normalize behavior about touch

Eg: feeling of pressure, roughness or smoothness, heat or cold, hardness and softness, sharpness or bluntness, friction etc.

Olfactory Formats: normalizes behaviors natural to sense of smell

Taste Formats: normalizes behaviors natural to sense of taste

Bridge between Business and Interface Layers

BUSINESS

RULES

Policy/Strategy

Exceptions

Process

Events

Vision

Value

BUSINESSPATTERNS

INFORMATION

LOGISTICS

DATA MOVEMENT

INTERFACE RULES

(HUMAN & AUTOMATION)

GUIs & FORMATTING

COMPONENTS

TECHNOLOGY RULES

PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

COMPONENTS

PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF MEANING

Meaning to algorithm or formula

Meaning to algorithm or formula


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

Cookie Sheet

(in use)

Cookie batch

BUSINESS PROCESS TO COMPUTER PROCESS

Cookie Sheet (used)

(information)

(effect)

Change

state of

cookie sheet

Cookie Sheet

(used)

End

(not necessarily together)

(RESOURCES)

Begin

(not necessarily together)

Bake dough

precede

(Mutually Inclusive Effects)

#

Unload cookie

(PRODUCTS)

(PROCESS)

(Process)

Cookie

Create cookie

Cookie

(information)

(effect)


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

Cookie Sheet

(in use)

Cookie batch

BUSINESS PROCESS TO COMPUTER PROCESS

  • Must begin and end together in real life

  • Only mutually inclusive in an automated system

    • Defines a transaction, roll back-recovery

    • Differrent from a business rule that requires the process be restarted with fresh dough if it has been suspended for more than an hour

Cookie Sheet (used)

(information)

(effect)

Change

state of

cookie sheet

Cookie Sheet

(used)

End

(not necessarily together)

(RESOURCES)

Begin

(not necessarily together)

Bake dough

precede

(Mutually Inclusive Effects)

#

Unload cookie

(PRODUCTS)

(PROCESS)

(Process)

Cookie

Create cookie

Cookie

(information)

(effect)


The information systems assembly line

THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS ASSEMBLY LINE

  • Business processes are triggered by business events

  • Business Events act on business objects

    • These actions are effects of business events.

    • Effects...

      • Create or delete object instances and effects

      • Update attributes, or states of objects

      • Create, destroy or switch relationships between particular instances of objects

HOW OBJECTS RESPOND TO EVENTS

Interface (“P” for Presentation of information) navigates the information system by triggering control processes

(recording of events & data,

navigation through screens,

dialogs, menus etc)

Actor

Information systems

Control Processes derived from business process maps

(Event)

(Event)

INFORMATION INPUT AND

OUTPUT PROCESSES

I/S control

Process

(A)

PARALLEL

PROCESSES

I/S control

Process

(B)

Controls use of, & sequences

(Flow of Time)

Triggers, Interrupts and controls

The same I/S control process (“C”) reused within another control Process

The sequence of effects must match the sequences of processes they were derived from

Otherwise the integrity of information may be compromised

(Effects of Events on Objects)

(C)

Effect

Effect

Object

response

to

Business

Event

(“E” for Effect)

(Effects of Events

on Objects)

Re-usable

Process (C)

(A subassembly of effects and controls)

Accesses

&

Updates

Accesses

&

Updates

Orchestration determined by the process map

Object

Object

Process (Another Reusable Component)

Objects (Reusable Components)

The same components may be invoked by different control processes


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

Set (store) occurrence of CFO signature (state indicator)

Subtype of

Set (store) CFO signature

EFFECT OF AN EVENT ON AN OBJECT

One operation may be a subtype of another depending on its information content

  • An effect may

    • create an (information) object.

    • delete an (information) object.

    • Update the state an (information) object.

  • The object may also be a relationship, attribute or an effect.

    • If the object is a relationship, the effect might switch the relationship from one instance of an object to another

    • Eg: A Person, tied to a product via a purchasing relationship, becomes a customer

Store is a polymorphism of Set in the information logistics layer

CHECK

(OBJECT)

EFFECT OF CFO SIGNATURE ON CHECK

CFO SIGNATURE EVENT

OPERATIONS

1. Store CFO Signature

2. If CEO signature is not null

set check Payability indicator to “Payable”

Guard condition

  • An operation may:

    • Replace the value of a feature

    • Delete or create an object

    • Replace, create or delete an effect

      • Eg: Sealing an agreement deletes an effect

        • May be implemented by a guard condition

      • Reopening an agreement adds an effect

Operations in Effect


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

Information

Conveyance

Process

subtype of

subtype of

Information

logistics

Information

Interface

Information

Input

Process

Information

Output

Process

(sourcing process)

(delivery process)

BUSINESS PROCESS AUTOMATION PARTITION

INPUT/OUTPUT PARTITION


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

BUSINESS

PROCESS

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

PROCESS

#

NORMAL

#

Business

Information

Information

Business

#

EXCEPTION PROCESS


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

TRANSFORMATION

PROCESS

  • Each Information input and output process will also have information logistics and interface layers

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

PROCESS

(Information input for normal business process)

(Information output exception for normal business process)

BUSINESS PROCESS

#

#

#

NORMAL

INFORMATION PROCESS FOR NORMAL BUSINESS

#

#

#

(informationexception)

Business

Information

Information

Business

#

#

(informationexception)

#

INFORMATION PROCESS FOR BUSINESS EXCEPTIONS

#

#

#

EXCEPTION PROCESS

(Information output exception for business exception process)

BUSINESS EXCEPTION PROCESS

(Information input for business exception process)


Exceptions

Exceptions

  • May raise alarms

    • Business (eg: oven failure, constraint violation, missing resource, broken conveyance mechanism)

    • BPA (eg: missing file, data in unexpected format, corrupted data, data from questionable source etc)

    • Technical exceptions (Eg: network failure, defective program)

  • Information Exception Layers

    • Interface layer of information exception output process may be output device sensitive (Eg: sounding alarm, showing in a different color etc.)

    • Information logistics layer of information exception output process will manage storage & transportation of information exceptions

    • Interface layer of information exception input process will accept corrections that could change the state of information exceptions

    • Information logistics layer of information exception input process will manage storage, staging and transportation of input data that might change the state of information exceptions

    • Information Exception Transformation process will set and change the states of information exceptions

      • Information exception output process will interpret these states in a format appropriate for different actors

  • Unknown exception process

    • Accept exception procedures at execution time if process is “unknown”

      • Unstructured process

      • Users may be alerted, inputs accepted by automated agent

      • Agent may store the solution and use the Principle of Parsimony to reuse the solution as appropriate

        • Confirm application with an actor

          • Actor may add information, confirm or deny

        • Apply without confirmation

        • Use a governing process to determine the right option

  • Referential Integrity Exceptions

    • Rules of interdependency: When the lawful state space of one (or more) object or composition refers to (is constrained by) another (others)

      • Applies to mandatory relationships such as subtypes and existence dependency

      • Eg: Occurrence of orders is contingent on the existence of a customer

      • Eg: Should a customer be deleted if open orders are pending?

    • “Snap-on” change parts (options)

      • Automatic cascading delete

      • Optional cascading delete

      • Prohibited deletion


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

IMPLEMENTING THE CONTROL PROCESS IN AUTOMATION

Some control processes may not be implemented

The sequence of effects must not violate the sequences of business processes they were derived from

See supplementary Materials Box 64

Some control processes may not be implemented

part of 0 or more

[Composed of 1]

part of 0 or more

[Composed of 1]

Augmented

Control Process

Orchestration

Interruption

Rollback-recovery

Some control processes may not be implemented

Some control processes may not be implemented

Stricter than “consists of”

Must assert when, and under what conditions embedded non-business effects will be invoked

Stricter than “consists of”

Must assert when, and under non-business effects will be invoked

part of 0 or more

[Composed of 1]

part of 0 or more

[Composed of 1]

Stricter than “consists of”

Must assert when, and under what conditions embedded non-business effects will be invoked

Stricter than “consists of”

Must assert when, and under what conditions embedded non-business effects will be invoked

Interface

Events & Effects

Control &

Navigation

Information

Logistics Events

& Effects

Control

Technology

Events & Effects

Control

Unaugmented Control Process (Business Effects Control)

INFORMATION

INPUT & OUTPUT PROCESS

  • Reusable asset

    • May be combined with different orchestrations of interface events, effects, navigation and control processes

      • Eg: 3270 vs. GUI

    • May be combined with different orchestrations of technology events, effects, navigation and control processes


Implementing non temporal relationships in automation

IMPLEMENTING NON TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIPS IN AUTOMATION

  • Injective (one to many)

    • May be implemented by drop down lists, tables, pull-down windows, graphics etc.

  • Surjective (one-to-many)

    • Similar (a relationship may be traversed in either direction)

  • Many-to-many

    • Similar

  • High order or high degree relationships

    • Tabular

      • With optional visibility into states of constituents of the relationship

  • Navigation processes: The cycle time is not business information any more; it is computer mechanics

    • Apply to “Observation/Inquiry processes

  • Substitute some non-temporal relationships and algorithms with processes

    • Eg: Setting a payability indicator for the check after both signatures are updated

    • Eg: payment = Rent + Utility charges

      • A third order relationship and mutual constraint

    • The cycle time is not business information any more; it is computer mechanics

    • The cycle time of the augmented orchestration of effects that maps to a business process must not exceed the cycle time requirements (if any) for the business process


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

THE METAMODEL OF RELATIONSHIP


Constraint

CONSTRAINT


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

A CONSTRAINT MAKES THE INCHOATE CHOATE

OBJECT

INCHOATE

OBJECT

CLASS

Class

Instance

OBJECT

OBJECT

OBJECT

INFORMATION

Class

Class

Instance

Instance

  • Relationships between instance identifiers are nominal pattern of occurrence

  • Relationships between attributes or domains may be magnitude constraints

  • State space is a pattern

  • Value constraints can carve out lawful regions of conceivable state space

  • Instance identifier is a token for a pattern

  • Governance flows from patterns of patterns

  • Patterns are defined by the Law of Location

  • The Law of Location is a constraint

  • A constraint conveys information

    • All information flows from some form of the concept of constraint

    • Constraints shape objects and patterns in information space

  • Constraints are the root of all meaning

  • Constraints create properties

CONSTRAINT

ACTOR/OBSERVER


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

THE METAMODEL OF OBJECT PROPERTY

See supplementary Materials Module 6


Crossing the chasm business process to information system

OVERVIEW OF THE INTEGRATED METAMODEL OF KNOWLEDGE

See supplementary Materials Module 7


See box 30 in your textbook

See Box 30 in your textbook


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