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GOV1008 MID-TERM REVIEW Introduction to Geographical Information Systems November 13, 2008

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GOV1008 MID-TERM REVIEW Introduction to Geographical Information Systems November 13, 2008. General Comment. Look at 2007 MT; exam usually a series of thought questions based on a real GIS application

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GOV1008 MID-TERM REVIEW

Introduction to Geographical Information Systems

November 13, 2008

general comment
General Comment
  • Look at 2007 MT; exam usually a series of thought questions based on a real GIS application
  • Exam is usually NOT focused on performing operations but on displaying understanding of the underlying theory
  • Important to read/review relevant sections in the textbook and be familiar with where to find details on topics covered in course
important concept 1
Important Concept - 1
  • Vector OR Raster?
  • Vector: discrete, object view, represents points, lines and areas
  • Raster: field view, grid with pixels
  • See Lecture 2 for advantages and disadvantages and examples of each
  • Measuring Earth: Ellipsoid & Datum
  • Ellipsoid: model of earth for use in GIS
  • Datum: glues the ellipsoid used to the geoid shape of the earth, required to maintain constant relationship between the two
important concept 2
Important Concept - 2
  • Cartography: factors to consider…
  • Symbolization
  • Color use
  • Map components: scale, north arrow, legend, title, source…
  • Data Classification
  • Spatial aggregation
  • Think Intuitively!
important concept 3
Important Concept - 3
  • Measuring Earth: Projections
  • Definition: the systematic transformation of points on the Earth’s surface to corresponding points on a plane surface
  • Types: conic, planar, cylindrical; conformal, equal area, azimuthal
  • Conformal property: shapes of small features are preserved, distortion is the same in all directions
  • Equal area property: shapes are distorted, but features have the correct area
important concept 4
Important Concept - 4
  • GIS Software Architecture
  • Desktop
  • Client-server
  • Centralized: Desktop/Citrix & Server

Server GIS

Centralized GIS

-Deploy multi-user desktop

-Internet GIS

-Enterprise GIS Servers

Manage/deploy centrally, Low cost of ownership, Good for data exploitation

important concept 5
Important Concept - 5
  • GIS Database Considerations

1 –User View

2 – Objects and Relationships

3 – Geographic Representation –vector vs. raster has implications for how the database is used

4 – Geographic Database Types – this involves matching the objects to be studied to specific data storage types

5 – Geographic Database Structure – assign a coordinate system to your data

6 – Database Schema – design the actual physical database schema

important concept 6
Important Concept - 6
  • Spatial Data Analysis: Transformations
  • Buffers
  • Point in polygon
  • Overlay:Continuous & Discrete
  • Interpolation: IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted)

Kriging, Density Estimation

  • Spatial Data Analysis: Geoprocessing
  • Clip, Append, Dissolve, Intersect, Union
important concept 7
Important Concept - 7
  • Spatial Analysis
  • For example: centroid, dispersion, semivariograms, measures of spatial autocorrelation such as Moran‘s I and Local Moran‘s, optimization
  • ESDA: consider ecological fallacy and the Modifiable Unit Areal Problem (MAUP)!
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