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Supplementation using steelhead fry: performance, interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments. Christopher P. Tatara NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center Stephen C. Riley USGS, Great Lakes Science Center Julie A. Scheurer

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Supplementation using steelhead fry: performance, interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

Christopher P. Tatara

NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Stephen C. Riley

USGS, Great Lakes Science Center

Julie A. Scheurer

NOAA Fisheries, Sustainable Fisheries Division

Barry A. Berejikian

NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center


Overview

Current status of steelhead under ESA interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

Role of hatcheries in steelhead management

2 potential pre-release techniques for steelhead conservation hatcheries

Environmental enrichment

Stocking fry

Field evaluation of these two conservation hatchery techniques

Overview


Esa status of steelhead
ESA Status of Steelhead interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments


Hatcheries in steelhead management
Hatcheries in steelhead management interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

  • Historic and current - Stock Enhancement

    • Provide fish for harvest and recreational angling

  • More recent – Restocking and Conservation

    • Restore spawning biomass/population to sustainable/stable level

  • Controversy over the use of hatchery fish for rebuilding imperiled natural populations

    • Changes to minimize genetic and environmental influences of hatcheries


Conservation hatchery techniques

Photo: DIPAC interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

Photo:NWPCC

190 mm

90 mm

Conservation hatchery techniques

Conventional

Hatchery Enrichment

Stream

Smolt release – 1 year

Fry release – 4-5 months


Rearing environments
Rearing Environments interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

Enriched

Photo: USFWS

Conventional

Natural

Photo: Scotty Corp.

Photo: USFWS


Evaluating conservation hatchery techniques: Experimental Design

Upstream

Upstream

Stocked: 31 July 2003

Observed: 5 occasions between

6 August and 11 Sept 2003

C + N

E + N

12

Creek

E + N

C + N

C + N

E + N

E + N

C + N

11

Creek

E + N

C + N

C + N

E + N

Final sampling:

16-17 September 2003

Downstream

Downstream


Evaluating conservation hatchery techniques responses and hypotheses
Evaluating conservation hatchery techniques: Responses and Hypotheses

Upstream

Upstream

Response Variables:

Behavior, Territory size,

Habitat use, Spatial distribution,

Growth, and Survival

C + N

E + N

12

Creek

E + N

C + N

H1: How do conventional and

enriched hatchery fry

compare to natural fry?

C = E = N

C + N

E + N

E + N

C + N

11

Creek

E + N

C + N

H2: Are natural fry differentially

affected by type of

hatchery fry stocked?

NCON = NENR

C + N

E + N

Downstream

Downstream


Results foraging and aggressive behavior natural fry

Results: Foraging and aggressive behavior – natural fry

  • Hatchery type (F1,79 = 5.01, p = 0.028)

  • Week (F3,79 = 4.34, p = 0.007)


Results territory size
Results: Territory size Hypotheses

  • H1: C = E = N

    • (F2,135 = 0.043, p = 0.653)

  • H2: NCON= NENR

    • (F1,45 = 0.45, p = 0.504)

  • Additional analyses

    • Fork length (F1, 132 = 9.40, p = 0.003)

    • Spatial use (T-value = 4.37, p < 0.001)

      • C = E = N (F2,133 = 0.66, p = 0.520)

    • Local density (p = 0.129)


Results habitat use
Results: habitat use Hypotheses

Pool Use Index = (# frypool/# fryencl)/(Areapool/Areaencl)

Stream x hatchery type stocked interaction

F1,36 = 14.40, p = 0.001

Stream x type interaction

F2,74 = 11.68, p<0.001


Results spatial distribution
Results: spatial distribution Hypotheses

  • Standardized Morisita Index

  • = 0 indicates randomness

  • > 0 indicates clumping (+)

  • < 0 indicates uniformity (-)

Stream x fish type, F2,76 = 6.42, p = 0.04

Hatchery type, F1,33 = 3.51, p = 0.07


Results growth
Results: Growth Hypotheses

(ANOVA, F1,18 = 7.23, p = 0.02)

n=6 for natural

n=3 for hatchery

Mann-Whitney, n=6


Results survival after 6 weeks
Results: Survival after 6 weeks Hypotheses

(ANOVA, F2,18 = 27.57, p < 0.001)

n=12 for natural

n=6 for hatchery

Mann-Whitney, n=6

Paired t-test, n=16


Results estimated survival over the course of the experiment
Results: Estimated survival over the course of the experiment

Proportion of initial population observed

Sheirer-Ray-Hare,

F1,95 = 45.2, p < 0.001



Supporting research evaluating effectiveness of fry stocking
Supporting research evaluating effectiveness of fry stocking experiment

  • Hatchery program established 2002

    • Featured fry stocking (after complete yolk absorbance)

    • Extensive genetic monitoring & adult & outmigrant traps

  • Used genetic monitoring to compare # age-2 smolts produced by female steelhead

    • Spawning naturally in the river

    • Spawned artificially in hatchery with their offspring released as fry

Carrofino et al. 2008.

Can J Fish Aquat Sci :

65: 309-318


Conclusions
Conclusions experiment

  • Fry from conventional and enriched hatchery environments develop natural social behaviors shortly after release

  • Individual hatchery fry establish and use territories like natural fry

  • Hatchery fry use pools like natural fry, but have a more clumped spatial distribution

  • Stocking enriched hatchery fry altered the foraging and aggressive behavior of natural fry

    • No effect on growth or survival of natural fry


Conclusions1
Conclusions experiment

  • Conventional and enriched hatchery fry grow as well as natural fry

  • Natural fry have higher survival than hatchery fry

    • most mortality of hatchery fry occurred within 2 weeks of stocking

  • Growth and survival of natural fry was similar when stocked with conventional or enriched hatchery fry

  • Supplementation with hatchery fry increased steelhead populations over the short-term (density increase of 2.9X)

    • no differences using conventional or enriched fry

    • Fry supplementation increases relative production of age-2 smolts

  • Longer studies of fry supplementation are needed to fully evaluate effectiveness


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements experiment

  • Rob Endicott

  • Jeff Atkins

  • Skip Tezak

  • Eric Kummerow

  • Rudy Wynn

  • Brandon Nickerson

  • Weyerhaeuser Corporation

  • WDFW, Bingham Creek Hatchery


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