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Supplementation using steelhead fry: performance, interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

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Supplementation using steelhead fry: performance, interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments. Christopher P. Tatara NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center Stephen C. Riley USGS, Great Lakes Science Center Julie A. Scheurer

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slide1

Supplementation using steelhead fry: performance, interactions with natural steelhead, & effect of enriched hatchery environments

Christopher P. Tatara

NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

Stephen C. Riley

USGS, Great Lakes Science Center

Julie A. Scheurer

NOAA Fisheries, Sustainable Fisheries Division

Barry A. Berejikian

NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

overview
Current status of steelhead under ESA

Role of hatcheries in steelhead management

2 potential pre-release techniques for steelhead conservation hatcheries

Environmental enrichment

Stocking fry

Field evaluation of these two conservation hatchery techniques

Overview
hatcheries in steelhead management
Hatcheries in steelhead management
  • Historic and current - Stock Enhancement
    • Provide fish for harvest and recreational angling
  • More recent – Restocking and Conservation
    • Restore spawning biomass/population to sustainable/stable level
  • Controversy over the use of hatchery fish for rebuilding imperiled natural populations
    • Changes to minimize genetic and environmental influences of hatcheries
conservation hatchery techniques

Photo: DIPAC

Photo:NWPCC

190 mm

90 mm

Conservation hatchery techniques

Conventional

Hatchery Enrichment

Stream

Smolt release – 1 year

Fry release – 4-5 months

rearing environments
Rearing Environments

Enriched

Photo: USFWS

Conventional

Natural

Photo: Scotty Corp.

Photo: USFWS

slide7

Evaluating conservation hatchery techniques: Experimental Design

Upstream

Upstream

Stocked: 31 July 2003

Observed: 5 occasions between

6 August and 11 Sept 2003

C + N

E + N

12

Creek

E + N

C + N

C + N

E + N

E + N

C + N

11

Creek

E + N

C + N

C + N

E + N

Final sampling:

16-17 September 2003

Downstream

Downstream

evaluating conservation hatchery techniques responses and hypotheses
Evaluating conservation hatchery techniques: Responses and Hypotheses

Upstream

Upstream

Response Variables:

Behavior, Territory size,

Habitat use, Spatial distribution,

Growth, and Survival

C + N

E + N

12

Creek

E + N

C + N

H1: How do conventional and

enriched hatchery fry

compare to natural fry?

C = E = N

C + N

E + N

E + N

C + N

11

Creek

E + N

C + N

H2: Are natural fry differentially

affected by type of

hatchery fry stocked?

NCON = NENR

C + N

E + N

Downstream

Downstream

results foraging and aggressive behavior natural fry

Hatchery type x Week interaction

  • (F3,79 = 3.97, p = 0.011)
Results: Foraging and aggressive behavior – natural fry
  • Hatchery type (F1,79 = 5.01, p = 0.028)
  • Week (F3,79 = 4.34, p = 0.007)
results territory size
Results: Territory size
  • H1: C = E = N
    • (F2,135 = 0.043, p = 0.653)
  • H2: NCON= NENR
    • (F1,45 = 0.45, p = 0.504)
  • Additional analyses
    • Fork length (F1, 132 = 9.40, p = 0.003)
    • Spatial use (T-value = 4.37, p < 0.001)
      • C = E = N (F2,133 = 0.66, p = 0.520)
    • Local density (p = 0.129)
results habitat use
Results: habitat use

Pool Use Index = (# frypool/# fryencl)/(Areapool/Areaencl)

Stream x hatchery type stocked interaction

F1,36 = 14.40, p = 0.001

Stream x type interaction

F2,74 = 11.68, p<0.001

results spatial distribution
Results: spatial distribution
  • Standardized Morisita Index
  • = 0 indicates randomness
  • > 0 indicates clumping (+)
  • < 0 indicates uniformity (-)

Stream x fish type, F2,76 = 6.42, p = 0.04

Hatchery type, F1,33 = 3.51, p = 0.07

results growth
Results: Growth

(ANOVA, F1,18 = 7.23, p = 0.02)

n=6 for natural

n=3 for hatchery

Mann-Whitney, n=6

results survival after 6 weeks
Results: Survival after 6 weeks

(ANOVA, F2,18 = 27.57, p < 0.001)

n=12 for natural

n=6 for hatchery

Mann-Whitney, n=6

Paired t-test, n=16

results estimated survival over the course of the experiment
Results: Estimated survival over the course of the experiment

Proportion of initial population observed

Sheirer-Ray-Hare,

F1,95 = 45.2, p < 0.001

supporting research evaluating effectiveness of fry stocking
Supporting research evaluating effectiveness of fry stocking
  • Hatchery program established 2002
    • Featured fry stocking (after complete yolk absorbance)
    • Extensive genetic monitoring & adult & outmigrant traps
  • Used genetic monitoring to compare # age-2 smolts produced by female steelhead
    • Spawning naturally in the river
    • Spawned artificially in hatchery with their offspring released as fry

Carrofino et al. 2008.

Can J Fish Aquat Sci :

65: 309-318

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Fry from conventional and enriched hatchery environments develop natural social behaviors shortly after release
  • Individual hatchery fry establish and use territories like natural fry
  • Hatchery fry use pools like natural fry, but have a more clumped spatial distribution
  • Stocking enriched hatchery fry altered the foraging and aggressive behavior of natural fry
    • No effect on growth or survival of natural fry
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • Conventional and enriched hatchery fry grow as well as natural fry
  • Natural fry have higher survival than hatchery fry
    • most mortality of hatchery fry occurred within 2 weeks of stocking
  • Growth and survival of natural fry was similar when stocked with conventional or enriched hatchery fry
  • Supplementation with hatchery fry increased steelhead populations over the short-term (density increase of 2.9X)
    • no differences using conventional or enriched fry
    • Fry supplementation increases relative production of age-2 smolts
  • Longer studies of fry supplementation are needed to fully evaluate effectiveness
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Rob Endicott
  • Jeff Atkins
  • Skip Tezak
  • Eric Kummerow
  • Rudy Wynn
  • Brandon Nickerson
  • Weyerhaeuser Corporation
  • WDFW, Bingham Creek Hatchery
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