Paleolithic period (c. 40,000-7,000 BCE):. Bison Wounded Lascaux, France 15,000-10,000 BC Cave Painting. Woman from Willendorf [Willendorf "Venus"] , Austria, c. 22,000 - 21,000 BCE, limestone, Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Bison Licking Insect Bite La Madeleine (France)
Paleolithic period (c. 40,000-7,000 BCE):
Woman from Willendorf [Willendorf "Venus"], Austria, c. 22,000 - 21,000 BCE, limestone, Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna
Bison Licking Insect Bite
La Madeleine (France)
c. 15,000-10,000 BC
Reindeer Horn, length 4 inches
Vogelherd cave (Germany)
c. 28,000 BC
Mammoth Ivory, length 2-1/2 inches
Hall of the Bulls: Bull, Red Horses & Brown Horses, Lascaux, Dordogne, France, c.15,000-13,000BCE (Paleolithic), cave painting on limestone
Human with feline head,
from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germanyca. 30,000-28,000 BCEMammoth ivory, 11 5/8 in. high. Ulmer Museum, Ulm
Two Spotted Horses with Negative HandprintsPainted and air-brushed on a cave wallPech-Merle, France, late period
Stonehenge stands on the open downland of Salisbury Plain two miles (3 kilometres) west of the town of Amesbury, Wiltshire, in Southern England. It is not a single structure but consists of a series of earth, timber, and stone structures which were revised and re-modelled over a period of more than 2000 years.
Neolithic PeriodBegins in Near East, ca. 8000 BCEBegins in Europe ca. 4000 BCE
Early Dynastic Egypt (c. 3150-2700 BCE)
Old Kingdom (c. 2700-2190 BCE)
Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1674 BCE)
New Kingdom (c. 1552-1069 BCE)
The old kingdom represents an important phase in Egypt's political and cultural development. Almost five centuries of continuos progress, lay the foundation to one of the most influential cultures of the ancient world It was during this crucial period that Hieroglyphic writing reached a reasonable level of sophistication and the techniques of crafts came to a high level of professionalism. King DJOSER , owner of the step pyramid at Saqqara, is the first and most celebrated king of the third dynasty.The works of CHEOPS, CHEPHREN, and MYCERINUS , the creators of the three pyramids at Giza represents the peak of achievements in the architectural field. A strong centralized government , as well as a divine kingship characterize this period , but towards the end of the period, central authority disintegrated and the country fell into a state of rapid decline.
The ancient Egyptians knew two types of dwarfs: Those with pathological deformities were entertainers for their masters, trained to be goldsmiths or were entrusted with the royal wardrobe and care of animals. The other type were the African pygmies who were usually employed in temples as " dancers before the gods ". The whole composition was successfully executed to show the happy family together. Two of the children substitute the legs of their father. They are executed in accordance with the established iconography for infants: hair hanging on one side, nude bodies, with a finger pointing to the mouth.
The re-establishment of a single administration for the whole country was achieved by MENTUHOTEP II. The middle kingdom was a period of revival of the Egyptian character. The kings of the eleventh dynasty were able to exert control over the land and located their capital in IST-TAWY (near modern El-LISHT) The kings of the twelfth dynasty promoted the economic and political development ;Egyptian trade flourished, and an elaborate irrigation system was again established.There was also a reversion to pyramid building , but it was undertaken on a much humbler level as compared with the old kingdom. Unfortunately, this revival was followed by the ultimate downfall of the central government and the country fell into the hands of foreign rulers.
It was during this period that Egypt reached the zenith of its glory. Vast military expansions both in Asia and the Sudan were undertaken by the Egyptian ruler.TUTMOSIS III was among the pioneers in the military field. The degree of refinement of this age is clearly manifested in the architectural heritage. Under the rule of queen HATSHIPSUT, the artistic revival began .The reigning monarchs of this period showed a genuine interest in art and architecture. AKHENATON, the heretic pharaoh, reached the peak of artistic innovations with his unique art style that accompanied his religious reformation. Indeed, it is to the powerful kings of this kingdom that the capital, Thebes, owes its present allure.