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医 学 细 胞 生 物 学 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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医 学 细 胞 生 物 学. ( Medical Cell Biology). 齐齐哈尔医学院生物遗传教研室. 第一章 绪 论. 第一节 细胞生物学概述. 细胞学( cytology ): 是研究细胞的形态、结构、生理功能及生活史的科学。 细胞生物学( cell biology) : 从细胞的显微、亚显微和分子水平研究细胞结构、功能及各种生命活动 的本质与规律的科 学。. 一、 细胞生物学的概念及研究内容. 细胞( cell ): 是构成生物体的基本结构和功能单位。. 二、细胞生物学在医学中的地位. 1 、细胞生物学是生命科学的重要分支。.

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医 学 细 胞 生 物 学

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Medical Cell Biology)


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  • cytology

  • cell biology)

  • cell


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1

2

3

4


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1.(cytogenetics)

2.(cytophysiology)

3.(cytosocilogy)

4.membrane biology)

5.(chromosome biology)

6.genomics

7.proteomics

8.(cytomics)


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  • (19-20)

  • (20- 20)


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  • 16651875

  • 1665 (Robert Hooke)


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Large Student Microscope made by

Charles Chevalier 1840


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  • 1752J. Dollond

  • 1812D. Brewster

  • 1886Ernst Abbe

Bausch & Lomb Investigator microscope circa 1893


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  • 16651875

  • 1665 (Robert Hooke)

  • 1677 (Leeuwenhoek)


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  • 16651875

  • 1665 (Robert Hooke)

  • 1831

  • 1835

  • 1836

  • 1838 1839 (Schleiden)

    ( Schwann )cell theory

  • 1677 (Leeuwenhoek)


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(Schleiden)

(Schwann )


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18751898

    • 1861 Schultze-protoplasm

    • 1841 Remak-

    • 1880 Flemming-

    • 1886 Strasburger-

    • 1883 Boveri-

    • 1898 Benda-

    • 1898 Golgi-


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19001943

  • 1902 BoveriSuttan

  • 1910 Morgen

  • 1909 Harrison

  • 1943 Cloude

  • 1924 FeulgenFeulgenDNA

  • 1940 BrachetUnnaRNA

  • 1940 CaspersonDNA


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1944-

  • 1932M.KnollE.A.F.Ruska19400.2nm

TEM


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1944-

  • 1944 Avery-DNA

  • 1953 WatsonCrick-DNA


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1944-

  • 1944 Avery-DNA

  • 1953 WatsonCrick-DNA

  • 1953 MeselsonMatthaei-

  • 1953 Crick-

  • 1955 Gamov-

  • 19562n4648


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  • 1961P. Mitchell 1978

  • 1961~64M. W. NirenbergDNA

  • 1968Werner ArberDNA

  • 1970D.BaltimoreR.DulbeccoH.Temin


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  • 1973S. CohenH. Boyer

  • 1975F.SangerDNA1980Sanger19531958


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  • 1983K.B.MullisPCR19931988CetusPCR19902600


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  • 1975G.J.F.KohlerC.MilsteinN.K.Jerne1984

  • 19904ADA

  • 199112


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  • 1990 Human Genome Project, 1530

    • 19931%330Mb

    • 2000628


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199675

Dolly sheep born in Roslin Institute, Scottland.


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1.

2.

3.


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105000440/Kg


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  • 35030-50


Gene chip

Gene Chip


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prokaryotic cell

eukaryotic cell


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DNA

1. (macoplasma):0.1-0.3um


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2. bacteria)


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TEM image,Escherichia coli


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20~30m5cm0.1m1m


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  • 2


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cell membrane)

(cytoplasm)

(nucleus)


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1.

2DNA

3

4


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Animal cell


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1~10m

10~100 m

70S50S+30S

80S60S+40S

DNA

DNA

DNA

DNA


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1


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2

protien

nucleic acid

3

4


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1

RNA

RNA

RNA

2


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  • 15

    1

2


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  • 1.

  • 2.

    epithelia tissue

    connective tissue )

  • blood

    nerve tissue

    muscle tissue


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  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4.


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Fluorescence image of epithelial cell, DNA in blue and Microtubules in green


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  • 3

LCSM Image of a Xenopus Melanophore

microtubule cytoskeleton (green) and the nucleus (blue)


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0.2nm


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2060


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0.2nm


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  • 200103

  • 199901

  • 1998

  • 20008

  • () 199811

  • () 199705

  • () 199707

  • Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th Edition, Bruce Alberts et al., 2002

  • Molecular Cell Biology 4th Edition, Harvey Lodish et al., 1999

  • Cell and Molecular Biology 3rdGerald Karp, 2002


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