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Plants. The producers, Many are firmly rooted to the bottom of the sea…. STRUCTURE. Four types of algae Unicellular Colonial Filamentous Multicellular or macrophytic. Phylum Chlorophyta – Green Algae. Algae a.k.a. seaweed Kingdoms Protista & Chromalveolata. Algal Taxonomy.

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Plants

Plants

The producers,

Many are firmly rooted

to the bottom of the sea….


Structure

STRUCTURE

Four types of algae

Unicellular

Colonial

Filamentous

Multicellular or macrophytic


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Phylum Chlorophyta –

Green Algae


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Algae a.k.a. seaweed

Kingdoms Protista &

Chromalveolata


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Algal Taxonomy

Eukaryotic Algae

single celled or multi-cellular, possess nuclear membrane, aquatic photoautotrophs, classified on chlorophyll, color, cell wall composition, food storage

Chlorophyta(green algae)

Phaeophyta (brown algae)

Rhodophyta (red algae)


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Is algae in the kingdom Plantae?

A CLASSIFICATION DEBATE RAGES

MACROPHYTE ALGAE

LARGE PLANTS,

WHETHER AQUATIC OR MARINE…

Are red and brown algae still

classified as protists?


Unicellular algae

Unicellular algae


Identify the type of algae

IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF ALGAE


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  • Chlorophylls a, b, c, d, e.

  • Each molecule functions at

  • specific wavelengths of light.

  • 2. Carotenes:

  • carotene B- found in all three divisions

  • xanthophylls- 20 different types of pigments and two types:

    • fucoxanthin- found only in phaeophyta

    • lutein- common pigment in all large algae

  • 3. Phycoblins:

  • phycocyanin- blue pigment

  • phycorethrin- pink-red pigment found in

  • rhodophytaand cyanobacteria


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    Phylum Chlorophyta –

    Green Algae


    Phylum chlorophyta green algae

    Phylum Chlorophyta –Green Algae

    • Pigments:

      • Chlorophylls a and b,

      • ß-carotene and various xanthophylls

    • Walls of cellulose

    • Food reserves:

      • true starch, fats and oils

    • Eukaryotic algae:

      • membrane-bound organelles

    • Flagella:

      • 2 or 4


    Phylum chlorophyta green algae distribution and habitats

    Phylum Chlorophyta –Green AlgaeDistribution and habitats

    • Common in ponds, ditches etc.

    • Attached to rocks or free floating

    • 90% are fresh water species

    • Often in brackish water

    • Shallow, nutrient-rich water

    • Important marine algae in tropics

    • May be symbiotic, lichens (algae + fungus)


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    Halimeda opuntia

    Caulerpa sertularioides

    Phylum Chlorophyta – Green Algae

    Codiumedule

    Caulerparacemosa

    Dictyosphaeria cavernosa


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    Chaetomorpha

    Bryopsi


    Chara

    Chara

    Volvox colony


    Caulerpa

    Caulerpa


    Reproduction

    REPRODUCTION

    MOST REPRODUCE BOTH SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY

    • Most sexual reproduction is triggered by environmental stress

    • Asexual Reproduction

      • Mitosis

    • Sexual Reproduction

      • Meiosis

      • Zoospores

      • Plus and minus gametes

      • Zygospore


    Water molds

    Water Molds


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    Kingdom Chromalveolata

    Division Heterokontophyta:

    Phylum Phaeophyta – Brown Algae


    Phylum phaeophyta

    Phylum Phaeophyta

    • 1500 species of Brown algae

    • Mostly marine and include seaweed and kelp

    • All are multicellular and large (often reaching lengths of 147 feet)

    • Individual alga may grow to a length of 100m with a holdfast, stipe and blade

    • Photosynthetic pigments

      • chlorophyll a &c

      • carotenoids

      • xanthophylls (e.g. fucoxanthin)


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    Padina japonica

    Turbinaria ornata

    Phaeophyta: Brown Algae

    Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Sargassumpolyphyllum

    Sargassum echinocarpum


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    Algal macrophyte structure


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    BrownAlgae

    Macrocystis -- Kelp


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    Macrocystis -- Kelp


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    Brown algae

    Egregia

    Postelsi

    Laminaria


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    Phylum Rhodophyta

    Photosynthetic Pigments

    chlorophyll a

    carotenoids

    phycobilins

    Mostly multicellular, marine forms.

    Abundant in warm, tropical coastal waters.

    Not all are red in color


    Kingdom protista phylum rhodophyta

    Kingdom Protista Phylum Rhodophyta

    • 4000 species of RED Algae

    • Most are marine

    • Smaller than brown algae and are often found at a depth of 200 meters.

    • Contain chlorophyll a and C as well as phycobilins which are important in absorbing light that can penetrate deep into the water

    • Have cells coated in carageenan which is used in cosmetics, gelatin capsules and some cheeses


    Phylum rhodophyta calcareous algae

    Phylum RhodophytaCalcareous algae


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    Hypneachordacea

    Ahnfeltiaconcinna

    Acanthophoraspicifera

    Galaxaurafastigiata

    Phylum Rhodophyta

    Asparagopsistaxiformis


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    Phylum Rhodophyta – Red Algae


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    Phylum Rhodophyta – Red Algae

    Corallin

    Mazzaella

    Palmari


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    Harvesting

    from the sea


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    The harvest of seaweed for culinary delights


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    Food Source in Hawaii

    7000 species altogether in world’s oceans

    600 different species of algae in Hawaii

    Limu were important to early Hawaiians

    More than 70 different kinds were used

    Eaten fresh

    used as spices or medicines

    used in religious ceremonies in Hawaii


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    Algal Products

    Certain alga can be used to make agar or as stabilizer in gelatin and ice cream:

    Use: sugar, milk, irish moss or euchima, Chondrus, Porphyra and Rhodymenia- blend and boil.

    • Thickener and help smooth these items:

    • Many foods and milk-products

    • Toothpaste

    • Beauty creams

    • Paints

    • Medical products- like bacterial culture plates, time-release pills, and dental impression gels


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    Phycocolloids

    Carrageenan from red algae

    Algin from brown algae


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    phycocolloids from red and brown algae


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