Disorders of Trauma and Stress. Chapter 5. Stress, Coping, and the Anxiety Response. The state of stress has two components: Stressor – event that creates demands Stress response – person’s reactions to the demands
Repeated, distressing images or thoughts
Attempts of avoid thoughts, feelings related to the event
Avoid people, places, or activities that remind them of the event
Numbing of responsiveness
Arousal or anxiety
Predicts a worse prognosis
Restlessness, agitation, and irritability
Exaggerated startle response
Dazed and act “spaced out”
Classical conditioning creates fear when the terror of trauma is paired with the cues associated with it.
Operant conditioning maintains avoidance by reducing fear (negative reinforcement). Avoidance prevents the extinction of anxiety through exposure.
1. Most cases of dissociative disorders are diagnosed by a handful of ardent advocates.
2. The frequency of the diagnosis of dissociative disorders in general and DID in particular increased rapidly after release of the very popular book and movie Sybil.
3. The number of personalities claimed to exist in cases of DID has grown rapidly, from a handful to 100 or more.
4. Dissociative disorders are rarely diagnosed outside of the United States and Canada; for example, only one unequivocal case of DID has been reported in Great Britain in the last 25 years).