A Census of the Universe
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A Census of the Universe. A Census of the Universe. Chris Pearson : Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) [email protected] http ://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cpp/. The Life of an Astronomer. The Life of an Astronomer. Rocks from space!!!!! Arizona Meteor Crater.

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A census of the universe

A Census of the Universe

A Census of the Universe

Chris Pearson : Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

[email protected] http ://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cpp/


A census of the universe

The Life of an Astronomer

The Life of an Astronomer

Rocks from space!!!!!

Arizona Meteor Crater

My name is : Chris Pearson( 梨村栗好)

My job is : Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Surveys = Mapping the Universe !

I work at : The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, in Japan.

University of Kent, Imperial College London, Sussex University in the U.K.

When I am not working I play : TAE KWON DO !


A census of the universe

The Life of an Astronomer

The Life of an Astronomer

In the U.K. I work between

University of Kent

Imperial College London

Sussex University

These days I am working at the

Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

I have a research Fellowship from the European Union

It becomes very confusing !!


A census of the universe

The Life of an Astronomer

The Life of an Astronomer

My life outside Astronomy

When I‘m not working I play : TAE KWON DO !


A census of the universe

The Life of an Astronomer

The Life of an Astronomer

But, I get to go to nice places


A census of the universe

The Life of an Astronomer

The Life of an Astronomer

Mauna Kea Volcano Summit in Hawaii

ハワイの火山の頂上での天文台


A census of the universe

University of Kent at Canterbury

University of Kent at Canterbury

Cathedral Town

Message from Astronomers at the University of Kent


A census of the universe

University of Kent at Canterbury

University of Kent at Canterbury

SPACE SCHOOL 2002

Organized by The University of Kent for local middle and high school students


A census of the universe

A Census of the Universe

A Census of the Universe

QUESTIONS WE WOULD LIKE TO ASK ?

  • Where are we in the Universe ?

  • How old is the Universe ?

  • How did the Universe Begin ?

  • How will the Universe end ?

  • How much stuff is there in the Universe ?

WHAT’S OUR ADDRESS ??

WHERE DO WE LIVE ??

WE NEED A GOOD MAP !!


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

町 - My Town


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

ロンドン大都市 - The London Area


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

英国 ー 国- My Country


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

国々 ー 世界- The World


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

地球- The Planet


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

ソーラーシステム - 惑星 - The Solar System

地球

太陽 - 地球


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川 - The Milky Way

オリオン渦巻腕- Orion Spiral Arm

うずまきわん

太陽


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

Milky Way Galaxy

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川銀河系

天の川銀河系- Our Galaxy

太陽


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

Milky Way Galaxy

The Local Group

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川銀河系

局部銀河群

きょくぶぎんがぐん

局部銀河群- The Local Group

天の川銀河系


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川銀河系

局部銀河群

乙女座の銀河団の辺

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

Milky Way Galaxy

The Local Group

near the Virgo Cluster

おとめざぎんがだん

乙女座の銀河団の辺

- in vicinity of Virgo Cluster

局部銀河群


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

Milky Way Galaxy

The Local Group

near the Virgo Cluster

Local Supercluster

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川銀河系

局部銀河群

乙女座の銀河団の辺

局部超銀河団

近い宇宙

きょくぶちょうぎんがだん

局部超銀河団- Local Supercluster

乙女座の銀河団の辺


A census of the universe

Our Address in the Universe

Our Address in the Universe

35 Lavidge Road

Greenwich

London

England

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

Milky Way Galaxy

The Local Group

near the Virgo Cluster

Local Supercluster

The Universe

35 ラビッジ ロード

グリニッジ市

ロンドン

イギリス

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川銀河系

局部銀河群

乙女座の銀河団の辺

局部超銀河団

宇宙 〒000 001

宇宙- The Universe

近い宇宙

(局部超銀河団)


A census of the universe

Your Address in the Universe

Your Address in the Universe

__________

_______−市

神奈川−県 229ー

日本

地球

ソーラーシステム

オリオンの渦巻腕

天の川銀河系

局部銀河群

乙女座の銀河団の辺

局部超銀河団

宇宙 〒000 001

………………….

………. - shi

Kanagawa-ken 229-

Japan

Planet Earth

Solar System

Spiral Arm of Orion

Milky Way Galaxy

The Local Group

near the Virgo Cluster

Local Supercluster

The Universe

Where do you live ?


A census of the universe

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum


A census of the universe

Infra Red Light

Infra Red Light

Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738-1822)

Thermometer

The Sun

slit

prism

screen

INFRARED

Normal Visible Light

(UV light)


A census of the universe

Infra Red Light

Infra Red Light

Energy of radiation depends on its’ TEMPERATURE

Wavelength of radiation depends on its’ TEMPERATURE

High Temperature  radiate at shorter wavelengths

Cooler Temperature radiate at longer wavelengths

Infra Red Light

UV

Light


A census of the universe

Infra Red Light

Infra Red Light

Energy radiated (Temperature)4

  • Land radiates more energy than sea

  • High clouds cooler than low clouds

  • Deserts absorb/radiate heat quickly


A census of the universe

Infra Red Light

Infra Red Light

  • Different colors absorb different amounts of heat

  • Were used to write the names of the colors used on a white piece of paper

  • Paper is then put outside in warm sunlight

  • Infra Red picture taken after 1 minute

  • Brighter areas show colors which are warmer because they absorb more heat from the sun.

  • Notice how the color black is the warmest, followed by blue, green, red, yellow and then white

  • Wear light colored clothing on a hot day !! keeps you cooler outdoors


A census of the universe

The Infra Red ZOO !!

The Infra Red ZOO !!

How different would our world look through infrared eyes ?

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/


A census of the universe

WHY Infra Red Light ?

WHY Infra Red Light ?


A census of the universe

WHY Infra Red Light ?

WHY Infra Red Light ?


A census of the universe

WHY Infra Red Light ?

WHY Infra Red Light ?

  • The stars we see represent only a fraction of the light in the Universe

  • Stars are born inside giant gas clouds  Youngest Stars are HIDDEN !

  • Young stars gradually blow away surrounding gas and dust

  • Eventually become bright and visible !!


A census of the universe

WHY Infra Red Light ?

WHY Infra Red Light ?

  • The stars we see represent only a fraction of the light in the Universe

  • Dust clouds between the stars obscure large regions

  • The visible light coming from objects behind the dust cloud is BLOCKED!

    • Infrared light shows where the Universe is cold and where it’s hot !

    • Infrared light shows us where hot young stars are being born

  • Young Stars emit strong UV/visible light

  • this is short wavelength

  • Dust absorbs this light

  • Dust is heated

  • Dust re- emits light in infrared region

  • this is long wavelength


A census of the universe

WHY Infra Red Light ?

WHY Infra Red Light ?

  • What we see depends on the wavelength (colour) of IR light

  • Short wavelengths see through the dust  Old stars

  • Longer wavelength sees heat from the dust  Young stars

Looking at the Universe at different wavelengths gives us completely different pictures

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/


A census of the universe

WHY from Space ?

WHY from Space ?

Optical light spans barely an order of magnitude !!

n=1030 Hz

l=10-15m

E=109eV

n=102 Hz

l=106m

E=10-12eV

~30 powers of 10


A census of the universe

WHY from Space ?

WHY from Space ?

1983 IRAS

1985 IRTS

1997 ISO

2003 SPITZER

2006 ASTRO-F


A census of the universe

WHY from Space ?

WHY from Space ?

For infrared astronomy -

Need to launch telescopes into space !

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/


A census of the universe

The Infra Red Universe

The Infra Red Universe

NGC7331: Our Galaxy’s Twin Brother

  • 50 Million Light Years in Pegasus

  • Discovered by Herschel in 1784

  • Optical, short IRAC, long IRAC, composite IRAC image

  • Short wavelengths - StarsLong wavelengths - PAH emission

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/


A census of the universe

The Infra Red Universe

The Infra Red Universe

Through the Infra Red Looking Glass

http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/


A census of the universe

The ASTRO-F Mission

The ASTRO-F Mission

ASTRO-F


A census of the universe

The ASTRO-F Mission

The ASTRO-F Mission

  • Second Japanese space infrared mission

  • 69cm Ritchey-Chretien cooled telescope

  • ISAS/SNU /IC/Kent/Sussex /SRON/ESA

  • FIR All Sky Survey

  • NIR-FIR deep imaging & spectroscopy

  • Launch: ISAS MV–6 in Summer 2005

  • Sun-synchronous polar orbit

  • Mission lifetime: ~ 550 days +


A census of the universe

The ASTRO-F Mission

The ASTRO-F Mission

IRC

FIS


A census of the universe

Mapping the Universe

Mapping the Universe

ASTRO-F will:

  • Make a map of the entire Universe

  • Discover Millions of new galaxies

  • Measure how fast these galaxies are making stars

  • Discover when Galaxies made all their stars

  • Tell us about the Universe at different wavelengths


A census of the universe

Mapping the Universe

Mapping the Universe

Galaxies

Dust

What will ASTRO-F see ?


A census of the universe

Mapping the Universe

Mapping the Universe

How do we map the Universe ?

  • Look at a piece of the sky

  • Throw away all the rubbish

  • Mark where the galaxies are

  • Create a catalogue of Galaxies


A census of the universe

The History of Our Universe

The History of Our Universe

HDF z~0.1 tz~ 1.3Gyr

HDF z~1 tz~ 7.5Gyr

HDF z~2 tz~ 10Gyr

HDF z~3 tz~ 11Gyr

We want to see if far away galaxies are different from nearby galaxies ??

1,000,000,000 years ago

Nearby Galaxies Today

Looking BACK in time

To LARGE distances

8,000,000,000 years ago

When Galaxies were YOUNGER

10,000,000,000 years ago

11,000,000,000 years ago


A census of the universe

The History of Our Universe

The History of Our Universe

  • When were the galaxies born?

  • When did they make their stars?

http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov


A census of the universe

What is Our Universe Made of ?

What is Our Universe Made of ?

WMAP Probe 

a different temperature map

The very early Universe

http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/

We don’t know what 96% of the Universe is even made of !!!


A census of the universe

What is Our Universe Made of ?

What is Our Universe Made of ?

Connecting the very early Universe with today’s Universe

http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/


A census of the universe

The Universe Now and Then

The Universe Now and Then

Connecting the very early Universe with today’s Universe

http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Galaxies are made at places where the Universe is most dense


A census of the universe

The Universe Now and Then

The Universe Now and Then

Connecting the very early Universe with today’s Universe

The ASTRO-F dark Energy Project

The WMAP

Universe

The ASTRO-F Universe

time


A census of the universe

Our Amazing Universe !!

Our Amazing Universe !!

http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  • We want a multi-wavelength map of the Universe !


A census of the universe

Things to “Keep in Mind”

Things to “Keep in Mind”

  • We only see a tiny fraction of the Universe with our eyes (visible light)

  • Looking in the infrared  we can see heat emission from objects

  • The Universe looks completely different in the Infra-Red

  • We need to launch rockets to get our infrared telescopes above the atmosphere

  • With infrared space telescopes we can see new stars being born in young galaxies

  • We will make a infrared map of the entire Universe with ASTRO-F

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING TODAY !!

どうもありがとうございます !

“The Universe is not made of Atoms it is made of Stories”

—  Muriel Rukeyser (1913-1980) poet.


A census of the universe


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