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Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 12. Sex Stereotypes. 1. What are the consequences of sex stereotypes? (continued). What are the consequences of sex stereotypes? (continued). 1. Sexism. TS and MS are assessed by the Modern Sexism Scale (MSS; Swim et al., 1995).

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Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 12

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Psychology 320: Gender PsychologyLecture 12


Sex Stereotypes

1. What are the consequences of sex stereotypes? (continued)


What are the consequences of sex stereotypes?(continued)

1. Sexism

  • TS and MS are assessed by the Modern Sexism Scale (MSS; Swim et al., 1995).

  • HS and BS are assessed by the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick and Fiske, 1996).


Your Questionnaire: ASI(Glick and Fiske, 1996)

  • Score 1: Hostile sexism score.

  • Score 2: Benevolent sexism score.


ASI: Descriptive Statistics(Glick and Fiske, 1996)

  • Cronbach’s alphas, HS, BS: .80, .77.

  • Correlations between HS and BS: .31 (males), .45(females).


  • Glick et al. (2000) administered the ASI to participants in 19 countries (e.g., Australia, Botswana, Cuba, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, the US). Their research produced the following findings:

(a) Across the 19 countries, HS and BS were positively correlated with one another.

(b) Across the 19 countries, males obtained higher scores on HS than females.


(c) In all but four countries (Botswana, Cuba, Nigeria, South Africa), males obtained higher scores on BS than females.

(d) Across the 19 countries, HS and BS scores among males were positively correlated with HS and BS scores among females.

(e) National scores on HS and BS among males and females were negatively correlated with national scores on gender equality.


Correlations Between ASI Averages and National Indices of Gender Equality(Glick et al., 2000)

GDI=Gender-Related Development Index GEM=Gender Empowerment Measure*p<.05, †p<.10 (marginally significant)


  • Sexism toward men is less well studied than sexism toward women.

  • Two forms of sexism toward men have been identified:

(a) Hostile sexism toward men (HM)

(b) Benevolent sexism toward men (BM)

  • Both HM and BM are assessed by the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick and Fiske, 1999).


Items from the AMI (Glick and Fiske, 1999)

Hostile Sexism:When men act to “help” women, they are often trying to prove they are better than women.Men will always fight to have greater control in society than women.Even men who claim to be sensitive to women’s rights really want a traditional relationship at home, with the woman performing most of the housekeeping and child care.Most men sexually harass women, even if only in subtle ways, once they are in a position of power over them

Benevolent Sexism:Even if both members of a couple work, the woman ought to be more attentive to taking care of her man at home.Every woman ought to have a man she adores.Men are more willing to put themselves in danger to protect others.Women ought to take care of their men at home, because men would fall apart if they had to fend for themselves.


AMI: Descriptive Statistics(Glick and Fiske, 1999)

  • Cronbach’s alphas, HM, BM: .86, .83.

  • Correlations between HM and BM: .65 (males), .39 (females).

  • Correlations between ASI and AMI: .69 (males), .76 (females).


  • Glick et al. (2004) administered the AMI to participants in 16 countries (e.g., Argentina, Australia, England, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Singapore, Syria, Taiwan, Turkey). Their research produced the following findings:

(a) Across the 16 countries, HM and BM were positively correlated with one another.

(b) In 15 of the countries, females obtained higher scores on HM than males.


(c) In all but five countries (Argentina, Colombia, England, Singapore, Syria ), males obtained higher scores on BM than females.

(d) Across the 16 countries, HS and BS scores among males were positively correlated with HM and BM scores among females.

(e) National scores on HM and BM were negatively correlated with national scores on gender equality.


Correlations Between AMI Averages and National Indices of Gender Equality(Glick et al., 2000)

GDI=Gender-Related Development Index GEM=Gender Empowerment Measure*p<.05, **p<.01


2. Sex Discrimination

  • Refers to the differential treatment of individuals based on their sex. May be directed at females and males.

  • Examples:

  • 2004: Class-action law suit, Betty Dukes et al. vs. Walmart.

  • 2005: Class-action law suit, David Woods et al. vs. the State of California, WEAVE, and DVSAC.


  • Sex discrimination can reinforce stereotypes by creating “self-fulfilling prophecies”: The differential treatment of males and females can produce stereotype-consistent attitudes, behaviours, aptitudes, and interests among males and females.

Example: The differential treatment of boys and girls with respect to their aptitude for and interest in reading.


Sex Stereotypes

1. What are the consequences of sex stereotypes? (continued)


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