MEXICO CASE STUDY FOR THE EXAMS
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MEXICO CASE STUDY FOR THE EXAMS. POPULATIONS IN TRANSITION - MIGRATION. Illegal Mexican immigrants have long met a significant portion of the demand for cheap labour in the United States. . There are more Zacatecans now living in Los Angeles than in the city of Zacatecas. .

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MEXICO CASE STUDY FOR THE EXAMS

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Mexico case study for the exams

MEXICO CASE STUDY FOR THE EXAMS


Mexico case study for the exams

POPULATIONS IN TRANSITION - MIGRATION


Mexico case study for the exams

Illegal Mexican immigrants have long met a significant portion of the demand for cheap labour in the United States.

There are more Zacatecans now living in Los Angeles than in the city of Zacatecas.

Remittances from Mexicans in the US have become one of Mexico's most important sources of income - second only to oil and surpassing the traditional tourism industry.

Money sent back to Mexico by the immigrants is money that is lost from the American Economy. In 2003 $13bn was sent to Mexico.

In Axochiapan, the lure of American money has created a town where fathers and husbands are absent for years on end, women are left alone to raise the children, and the community is growing increasingly dependent on money made elsewhere.

The average weekly wage in parts of Mexico is about 600 pesos, or $60. That's about one-sixth of what most immigrants can make in the States.

Women now outnumber men in rural areas and the women have problems finding suitable marriage partners.

In the village of Jomulquillo, One of the few locals remaining there says that at the moment there are 80 people living in the village - 300 live in Los Angeles. With the empty houses, the closed windows and locked doors, this feels like a ghost town.

Critics argue that dependence on remittances can impair local initiative and create no incentives for people to move forward.


Mexico case study for the exams

GLOBAL INTERACTIONS - DIASPORA


Mexico case study for the exams

Hispanics in the USA lag behind the rest of the population in terms of education. For example, only 9% of Mexicans in the USA aged 25 and over have at least a Bachelor’s degree, compared with 13% of all Hispanics in the USA and over 20% for the US population as a whole.

The growing number of Hispanics in the USA has meant that Hispanics are now looking to have a greater say in politics. This has led to the formation of the Tequila Party , a nonpartisan movement launched on 5 May (Cinco de Mayo) 2011. Their first political rally, a call to “get out and vote”, accompanied by mariachis, was held in Tucson, Arizona.

Mexicans are the dominant Hispanic group in many major metropolitan areas, from Los Angeles to Chicago, and San Antonio to Atlanta, with some exceptions in the East, including Miami (Cubans) and New York (Puerto Ricans).

where the average personal earnings for Mexicans in the USA aged 16 and over was $20,000 in 2009, compared to $28.900 for the US population as a whole.

the children and grandchildren of Mexican immigrants were able to make close ties with their extended families in Mexico, since United States shares a 2,000 mile border with Mexico. Many had the opportunity to visit Mexico on a relatively frequent basis. As a result, many Mexicans were able to maintain a strong Mexican culture, language, and relationship with others.

diplomats regularly meet with Mexican American leaders and, what is more controversial, encourage Mexican Americans to access social services funded by U.S. taxpayers. Acting more cautiously, Mexico has not encouraged its diaspora to lobby on behalf of the country’s foreign policy goals, fearing a nationalist backlash within the United States.


Mexico case study for the exams

GLOBAL INTERACTIONS – FINANCIAL FLOWS REMITTANCES


Mexico case study for the exams

Money sent back to Mexico by the immigrants is money that is lost from the American Economy. In 2003 $13bn was sent to Mexico.

Despite the relative stagnation of the US economy, the flow of money keeps growing, according to recent data. In 2003 it increased by 35% - the total amount sent that year to Mexico was more than $13bn.

Critics argue that dependence on remittances can impair local initiative and create no incentives for people to move forward.

Remittances from Mexicans in the US have become one of Mexico's most important sources of income - second only to oil and surpassing the traditional tourism industry.


Mexico case study for the exams

WEALTH & DISPARITIES - NAFTA & TRADE


Mexico case study for the exams

The goal of NAFTA was to eliminate barriers to trade and investment between the US, Canada and Mexico. The implementation of NAFTA on January 1, 1994 brought the immediate elimination of tariffs on more than one-half of Mexico's exports to the U.S. and more than one-third of U.S. exports to Mexico

Maquiladoras (Mexican factories that take in imported raw materials and produce goods for export) have become the landmark of trade in Mexico. These are plants that moved to this region from the United States. Hufbauer's(2005) book shows that income in the maquiladora sector has increased 15.5% since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. This has allowed for the rapid growth of non-border metropolitan areas, such as Toluca, León and Puebla; all three larger in population than Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Reynosa.

Some have suggested that in order to fully benefit from the agreement, Mexico must invest more in education and promote innovation in infrastructure and agriculture.

Production of corn in Mexico has increased since NAFTA's implementation. However, internal corn demand has increased beyond Mexico's sufficiency, and imports have become necessary, far beyond the quotas Mexico had originally negotiated. Zahniser & Coyle have also pointed out that corn prices in Mexico, adjusted for international prices, have drastically decreased, yet through a program of subsidies expanded by former president Vicente Fox, production has remained stable since 2000.

The most serious overall increases in pollution were found in the base metals sector, the petroleum sector, and the transportation equipment sector

Unfortunately, many of the same rural people who would have been likely to produce higher-margin value-added products in Mexico have instead emigrated. The rise in corn prices due to increased ethanol demand may improve the situation of corn farmers in Mexico


Mexico case study for the exams

GLOBAL INTERACTIONS - NAFTA & TRADE


Mexico case study for the exams

The goal of NAFTA was to eliminate barriers to trade and investment between the US, Canada and Mexico. The implementation of NAFTA on January 1, 1994 brought the immediate elimination of tariffs on more than one-half of Mexico's exports to the U.S. and more than one-third of U.S. exports to Mexico

Maquiladoras (Mexican factories that take in imported raw materials and produce goods for export) have become the landmark of trade in Mexico. These are plants that moved to this region from the United States. Hufbauer's(2005) book shows that income in the maquiladora sector has increased 15.5% since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. This has allowed for the rapid growth of non-border metropolitan areas, such as Toluca, León and Puebla; all three larger in population than Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Reynosa.

Some have suggested that in order to fully benefit from the agreement, Mexico must invest more in education and promote innovation in infrastructure and agriculture.

Production of corn in Mexico has increased since NAFTA's implementation. However, internal corn demand has increased beyond Mexico's sufficiency, and imports have become necessary, far beyond the quotas Mexico had originally negotiated. Zahniser & Coyle have also pointed out that corn prices in Mexico, adjusted for international prices, have drastically decreased, yet through a program of subsidies expanded by former president Vicente Fox, production has remained stable since 2000.

The most serious overall increases in pollution were found in the base metals sector, the petroleum sector, and the transportation equipment sector

Unfortunately, many of the same rural people who would have been likely to produce higher-margin value-added products in Mexico have instead emigrated. The rise in corn prices due to increased ethanol demand may improve the situation of corn farmers in Mexico


Mexico case study for the exams

WEALTH & DISPARITIES – INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN MEXICO


Mexico case study for the exams

TARAHUMARA OR RARAMURI OF THE COPPER CANYON

82% highly marginalized, 33% illiterate (national rate 9.5%) Females get 1 year less schooling than males, 5% infant mortality, +60% higher under 5 mortality, 85% households below the poverty line, +50% extreme poverty, +1/3 houses lack electricity

+50% lack piped water, +90% own their own homes & farm plots

The extreme isolation of the Tarahumara (until recent years) and their adaptation of some elements of the alien Spanish/Mexican culture have enabled them to survive in what most observers would regard as an extraordinarily hostile natural environment. The effects of this isolation are reflected in their culture, in their relatively equal gender roles in terms of their economy, their flexibility of work schedule, lack of economic specialization and their willingness to share available food when necessary to ensure survival.

In many places, there are clear signs of the immense environmental destruction wrought by timber cutting, often on slopes so steep that there is little chance of reforesting them in the future. Soil erosion is rampant in some areas and satellite imagery reveals huge areas that are no longer forested.

Drug cultivators seeking land for growing marijuana & opium poppies in the Canyon country has further marginalized the Tarahumara. Drug cultivators have sometimes registered parcels of land as theirs & then ejected the Indians by force. Obviously, they choose the best available land, & their cultivation methods are designed to produce quick results, rather than sustainability.

Better roads have enabled traders to build a credit relationship with Tarahumara, offering non-traditional goods in exchange for a share of the maize harvest. Leading to problems of indebtedness and exploitation.


Mexico case study for the exams

GLOBAL INTERACTIONS – INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN MEXICO


Mexico case study for the exams

TARAHUMARA OR RARAMURI OF THE COPPER CANYON

Better roads have enabled traders to build a credit relationship with Tarahumara, offering non-traditional goods in exchange for a share of the maize harvest. Leading to problems of indebtedness and exploitation.

The extreme isolation of the Tarahumara (until recent years) and their adaptation of some elements of the alien Spanish/Mexican culture have enabled them to survive in what most observers would regard as an extraordinarily hostile natural environment.

Drug cultivators seeking land for growing marijuana & opium poppies in the Canyon country has further marginalized the Tarahumara. Drug cultivators have sometimes registered parcels of land as theirs & then ejected the Indians by force. Obviously, they choose the best available land, & their cultivation methods are designed to produce quick results, rather than sustainability.

Mining activity has increased in the past decade as metal prices have been high and the federal government has encouraged foreign investment in the sector. Mining leads to a reduction in wildlife and to the contamination of water resources. The most damaging pollutants are heavy metals.

In the past decade, investments totaling 75 million dollars have been made to improve infrastructure in the Copper Canyon region so that the area has the hotels, restaurants and recreational activities to handle six times the current number of visitors. The plan includes three remodeled train stations and a cable car that is already in operation. Sadly, they were not consulted. The plan essentially deprives them of communal land with nothing being offered in exchange. Clearly, they are in danger of losing control over even more of their natural resources


Mexico case study for the exams

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY - WATER


Mexico case study for the exams

Water is a natural resource that is distributed disproportionately in Mexico, a country which is 31% arid, 36% semi-arid and 33% sub-humid. The average annual precipitation is 780 millimeters and the annual volume of water is 1630 cubic kilometers, 27% of which drains into rivers, the deepest of which are located in the southeast. By contrast, only 19% drains into the northern and central regions, which make up more than half of the country. Similar situationsoccurwithundergroundwater.

The total internal renewable water resources in Mexico are 457 billion cubic meters (BCM)/ year plus 49 BCM/year inflows from neighbouring countries such as the US.

More than 30% of water is lost due to leaks, in Mexico City.

Poorest people need to pay higher prices for safe water. Since the early 90s, more than 10 million inhabitants don’t have access to safe water (especially in Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Colima, Tlaxcala)

Out of 600 aquifers

, 101 are exploited.

There are several rivers, which supply Mexico with fresh water; some of these are “Rio Balsas” (49 BCM/year) &“Rio Grijalva-Usumacinta” (115 BCM/year)


Mexico case study for the exams

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY – TROPICAL RAINFORESTS


Mexico case study for the exams

Mexico is a country that has the greatest biological diversity in the world and the Lacandon Jungle is the most biodiverse region of our country.

LacandonJungle, which represents only 0.16% of the country, still has a fifth of Mexico's biological diversity. It contains 30% of the species of mammals, 50% of birds and 50% of butterflies, many of these species are endangered as the scarlet macaw, harpy eagle, jaguar, tapir, spider and howler monkeys.

In the tropical rainforests concentrate 50% of the planet's species, even though they hold only 7% of its territory. These forests have been profoundly transformed by human action. The 70% of the deforestation occurs in these ecosystems.

The government established seven protected areas to conserve 419.452 hectares of Lacandon Jungle and are administered by the National Commission of Protected Natural Areas. The reserve of Montes Azules Biosphere is the largest area and ecological significance with 331,200 hectares.

The Lacandon Forest in Chiapas represents 50% of the tropical rainforests left in Mexico and is the latest flood forest in North and Middle America.

Natura Mexicana (NGO) has resolved land conflicts & done so with an environmental vision. Local communities and the country know of the existence of the Reserve and the importance of this natural heritage. have been created jobs and productive projects initiated by the conservation, management and restoration of the Reserve and their areas of influence.

The region of the Lacandon Jungle originally contained 1.8 million hectares of forest. It has been reduced to less than a quarter in the last four decades due to agricultural activities, human settlements irregular, forest fires and illegal logging and hunting.


Mexico case study for the exams

URBAN ENVIRONMENTS


Mexico case study for the exams

TRANSPORT

METRO BUILT 1960S 200 km-long network ONLY USED BY 14% POP

CAR DENSITY: 383 CARS PER 1000 RESIDENTS and 2,252 CARS PER KM2METROBUS: 3 lines 67 kilometers of dedicated bus ways, 113 stations and 280 buses, moving 620,000 passengers per day and reducing an estimated 100,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions every year.

KEY STATS

POP: 8.6 MILLION METROPOLITAN AREA: 18 MILLAREA: 1, 484KM2 POP DENSITY: 5,900 PEOPLE PER KM2GDP: US$212,697 MILL (22% MEXICO’S GDP)

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION

Social impact; The wealthiest districts are in the west, while developers sold large tracts of un serviced land in the east to low-income families.In 1954 the Federal District forbade further subdivision of land within the city limits, leading to informal settlements in Naucalpan (W), Ecatepec (N) and Netzahualcoyotl (E). However, there is still a desperate shortage of dwellings - in 1994 is was estimated around 800,000 houses were required. Access to healthcare attracts many to the city in the first place but there is uneven distribution of facilities, with most hospitals and clinics found in the centre and west. The social security system does not cover most who work in the informal sector, so many can scarce afford medical bills. Some 60% of Mexico City's population live in what were originally illegal settlements. Much is poor quality and high density with few services. The government does little to change this situation. Newcomers are treated as transients from rural areas who have strayed temporarily into town. They are described as 'marginal', belonging neither to the urban economy, nor to the place where they live. This supposed impermanence gives the authorities an excuse not to provide the slum dwellers with services.

Environmental : " In 1994, the World Health Organisation declared that air quality in Mexico City was only acceptable on 20 days in the year. Nowadays, some 4 million vehicles, together with 40,000 factories pump over 12,000 tonnes of gases, pollutants and particulates a day. Two million people suffer from diseases caused by air pollution, as well as increasing incidence of allergies, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. 98% of the population suffers from deformation and inflammation of the nasal passages. The air pollution problem is exacerbated by the temperature inversions, which occur when cold air sinks down from the surrounding mountains, trapping the pollutants below at ground level. Another contributing factor is the dumping of hazardous waste on open sites. The city produces 40% of all Mexico's hazardous waste, some 2.48 million tonnes pa. With no legal landfill sites and just 5 recyclers, waste in dumped in any available open space, for example Rincon Verde in the west. The site produces dangerous air and water pollution, when chemicals are leached into the water table. Water supply is another problem. Mexico City consumes 60,000 litres of water per second, 80% of which is groundwater. Having overpumped the Mexico Valley aquifer, it is now necessary to pump water up to 180km from Cutzamala at much higher cost. Some 40% of water entering the city's supply system disappears en route, due to cracked and leaking pipes, illegal tampering and the lack of water meters. A vicious circle has developed, with the service so poor that the water companies cannot recoup their costs from users, and the derived income so low that the service can't be improved.

Economic: Mexico City is very much a primate city, producing 28% of the the country's industrial output, 49% of manufacturing & 68% of financial services. There are well over 7 million economically active people within Mexico City, including 40% in the informal sector. The constant inflow of rural migrants inevitably end up as street vendors, unskilled workers in the clothing and show industries, or cleaners. The national minimum wage is $2.50, though most are pleased with any small wage they are given. Foreign multi-national companies like Daewoo are attracted to Mexico City by the large cheap labour force. Tourism is another major foreign currency earner. The inflow of rural migrants in search of employment makes the job situation acute, and unemployment is high.


Mexico case study for the exams

FOOD & HEALTH - OBESITY


Mexico case study for the exams

Obesity in Mexico, whilst once a mark of wealth, can now be a sign of poverty in the inner cities of transitional economies such as Mexico. Despite this, in rural regions, many are still undernourished rather than overnourished.

A 1999 survey found 24% of Mexican women were obese and an addition 35% were overweight; 55% men were either obese or overweight. By 2010, seven out of ten Mexicans were overweight. In 2012, diabetes - associated with obesity - was the largest single killer of Mexicans.

Mexico is using several methods to reform its obese and overweight population. The Mexican Health Secretary launched a health campaign on February 25, 2008 and PepsiCo launched a program for children and encourages active participation in exercise activities and adopting a healthy lifestyle by using a computer game. In this game, the "nutrin," as the figure is called, needs help making decisions on what foods to eat, what sports to play, and when it should go to the doctor for a check-up.

There was discussion on putting a 5 percent tax on soft drinks; it was voted against because it was thought to be unfair to the poor when it is more expensive to buy water.

Eighty percent of schools do not have drinking water, and it is easier to provide soft drinks. If these programs do not have considerable impact leading to a lessening of the obesity epidemic, the country will have several additional health problems with which to deal

Mexico has 205 McDonald's restaurants, which is not significant, ranking 34th in the world per capita. As far as soft drinks are concerned, the country’s consumption has increased by 60 percent over the last 14 years. The intake of fast food, junk food, and soft drinks would have an effect on the weight gain on the Mexican people because of the numerous calories each item contains. Challenging is the inability to burn that large sum of calories compared to the amount of calories in a balanced diet.


Mexico case study for the exams

FOOD & HEALTH – CHANGING LIFE EXPECTANCY


Mexico case study for the exams

Obesity in Mexico, whilst once a mark of wealth, can now be a sign of poverty in the inner cities of transitional economies such as Mexico. Despite this, in rural regions, many are still undernourished rather than overnourished.

A 1999 survey found 24% of Mexican women were obese and an addition 35% were overweight; 55% men were either obese or overweight. By 2010, seven out of ten Mexicans were overweight. In 2012, diabetes - associated with obesity - was the largest single killer of Mexicans.

Mexico is using several methods to reform its obese and overweight population. The Mexican Health Secretary launched a health campaign on February 25, 2008 and PepsiCo launched a program for children and encourages active participation in exercise activities and adopting a healthy lifestyle by using a computer game. In this game, the "nutrin," as the figure is called, needs help making decisions on what foods to eat, what sports to play, and when it should go to the doctor for a check-up.

There was discussion on putting a 5 percent tax on soft drinks; it was voted against because it was thought to be unfair to the poor when it is more expensive to buy water.

Eighty percent of schools do not have drinking water, and it is easier to provide soft drinks. If these programs do not have considerable impact leading to a lessening of the obesity epidemic, the country will have several additional health problems with which to deal

Mexico has 205 McDonald's restaurants, which is not significant, ranking 34th in the world per capita. As far as soft drinks are concerned, the country’s consumption has increased by 60 percent over the last 14 years. The intake of fast food, junk food, and soft drinks would have an effect on the weight gain on the Mexican people because of the numerous calories each item contains. Challenging is the inability to burn that large sum of calories compared to the amount of calories in a balanced diet.


Mexico case study for the exams

GLOBAL INTERACTIONS – DIGITAL DIVIDE


Mexico case study for the exams

In the past decade, UN figures show internet access nationwide has jumped from negligible to 26%.

A government effort to give one laptop per class faltered and was abandoned in 2006, stranding Mexico's 50 million poor – just under half the population – on the wrong side of the digital divide.

TELEPHONES: Nationwide there is slow progress: the number of fixed lines per 100 people has inched from 12.5 to 18 in the past decade.

Mexico, devoting over 6% of GDP to schooling, is the most generous. Even so, half of schools lack functioning bathrooms and basic teaching equipment and qualified, dedicated teachers are scarce.

The number of cellphones per 100 people, however, has soared from 14 to 77. "It took us six months to save the 600 pesos ($46) but the family finally got a cell last month," beamed Antonio Pliego, 49, who sells fried snacks from a stall. "It's changed our life. It's much easier now to keep in touch with relatives."

At 55 cents per minute Mexico's mobile phone charges are among the region's highest. "The (telecommunications) companies are oligopolies and their prices are a deterrent to some of the poor," says Martinez-Soliman.


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