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Fisheries management in Caribbean countries: information needs of the policy –making process in relation to GEC & the Caribbean Food System. Fisheries Management In the Caribbean. Fish is second highest source of protein Employs around 130,000 Fisheries production – 123,366 MT

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Fisheries management in Caribbean countries:information needs of the policy –making process in relation to GEC & the Caribbean Food System


Fisheries Management

In the Caribbean

  • Fish is second highest source of protein

  • Employs around 130,000

  • Fisheries production – 123,366 MT

  • Significant revenue earner in some countries, e.g. Belize

  • Key sector for providing opportunities for

  • rural poor, socio-economically disadvantaged


Fisheries Management

In the Caribbean

  • Artisanal & small-scale components are significant

  • Subsistence fishing also very important

  • Fishing communities usually based in low-lying

  • coastal areas

  • Landing sites : usually sandy beaches with

  • little added physical infrastructure

  • Boats hauled onto beaches, or moored in sheltered areas


Management objectives
Management Objectives

  • Biological objectives

    - conservation of the resource

    - protection of the ecosystem

    - protection of biodiversity

  • Economic objectives

    - Optimise stakeholder profits,

    - generate employment opportunities

    - generate revenue through trade and tourism

  • Social objectives

    - food security

    - poverty alleviation

    - equitable distribution of economic benefits


Achieving management objectives
Achieving Management Objectives

  • Resource assessment models

    - Surplus production models that estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield – MSY, MEY

    - Age-based and size-based models that estimate growth and recruitment over fishing reference points

    - Bioeconomic models

    - Ecosystem-based approaches

    - Models incorporating environmental effects

  • Monitoring of catch rates as abundance index


MSY  MEY  MSocY

 Ecologically adapted

management

MEY

MSY


ECOLOGICALLY ADAPTED MANAGEMENT

(Wilson and Kleban, 1992)

- Nature is non-random but unpredictable

- fish populations will vary unpredictably

within certain limits

- need to understand longer-term ecological

relationships

- more flexible management systems


GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES THAT

MAY AFFECT CARIBBEAN FISHERIES

  • - Increase in sea surface temperature

  • - sea level rise

  • increased frequency of ENSO events

  • increased frequency of storms & hurricanes

  • - changes in rainfall

  • changes in sea current systems


INCREASE IN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  • Coral bleaching

    - loss of biodiversity

    - decreased ecosystem health and resilience

    - long-term threat to food security

    - decreased yield of some traditional reef species

    - short to medium-term threat to food security

    - investment losses


INCREASE IN

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE (cont’d)

  • Increased frequency of storms & hurricanes

    - irreversible coastal habitat destruction (reefs, mangroves)

    - beach erosion (damage to landing sites)

    - vessel & gear damage

    - increased fishing pressure as a result of employment shifts

    - access and availability of reef fish species, lobster and conch

    - changes in resource recruitment (damage to nursery areas

    & changed coastal circulation patterns)

    - decreased fishing days

    - increase in ciguatera poisoning

    Changes in resource biology

    - increased growth & mortality

    - changes in resource distribution


SEA LEVEL RISE

  • Coastal habitat loss

    - mangroves

    - loss of many landing sites

    - submergence of low lying islands often used as

    fishing bases

    - saltwater intrusion of coastal and estuarine wetlands

  • Changes in resource abundance

    - decreased stock recruitment to reef & lobster fisheries

    - decreased fisheries yields

    - decreased production of coastal & estuarine wetlands


INCREASED FREQUENCY OF ENSOs

  • Shifts in resource distribution

    - decreased local availability of resource

  • Changes in resource abundance

    - decreased stock recruitment to some fisheries

  • Investment losses


CHANGES IN RAINFALL

  • Drought

    - decreased production of freshwater

    and mangrove systems

CHANGES IN SEA CURRENT

CIRCULATION PATTERNS

  • Key migrations of oceanic pelagic species

  • Changes in movement of nutrient-enriched water created by upwelling effects and river discharges off Guianas-Brazil shelf


FULFILLING INFORMATION NEEDS

OF POLICY MAKERS

  • Enhancement of current baseline and monitoring

    data information systems

    - resource data

    - fishery activity data

  • - habitat inventory data, e.g. coral reef, mangroves

  • - environmental data (SST, ocean currents, wind speed)


INFORMATION NEEDS (cont’d)

  • Research and Development of Management Advice

    - biological and ecological studies

    (resource biology and resource/environment relationships,

    identify ecosystem indicators related to GEC)

    - socio-economic studies (vulnerability assessments,

    evaluation of adaptation responses, community involvement &

    integrated approach)

  • - technological studies (alternative fishing practices

  • - further development of ecosystem-based fishery models

  • - risk assessment and development of precautionary &

  • participatory approaches to management


INFORMATION NEEDS (cont’d)

  • Capacity, Legislation and Infrastructure

    - evaluate capacity building needs (supporting institutions, HRD

    & community education and participation in management)

    - evaluate new or additional infra structural needs

  • - review need for updating /introducing legislation to support

  • proposed changed policies, e.g. habitat protection


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