Mutations. Mutations. In biology, a mutation is a change in the organism’s DNA. There are different types of mutations that we need to understand.
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In biology, a mutation is a change in the organism’s DNA. There are different types of mutations that we need to understand.
A point mutation is one in which one nucleotide is substituted for another. An incorrect nucleotide is put in the place of the correct one. Usually, this mistake is caught and fixed by the DNA polymerase. If it isn’t, the substitution may permanently change an organism’s DNA.
Another type of mutation is the frameshiftmutation. This involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence. They shift the entire sequence following them by one or more nucleotides.
Gene duplication is one type of chromosomal mutation. This occurs when similar chromosomes exchange DNA segments. If they do not align properly, the segments may be different in size and one chromosomes may have two copies while the other chromosome may have no copy at all.
Chromosomal mutation affects a lot of genes and tend to have a big effect on an organism.
Gene mutations can also have a big effect on an organism even though it is smaller in size. Changing one codon may result in a protein that is not compatible with the enzyme and destroy the proteins function.
If a mutation occurs in a body cell, then the mutation only impacts the individual organism.
Replication Errors: DNA polymerase has a built-in proofreading function to help with replication. However, errors occur and are not fixed over time. Eventually, they impact how the cell functions…. An example of this is aging.
Mutagens: Agents in the environment that change DNA. They can break DNA segments or speed up the rate of replication errors. These mutagens can be naturally found (UV light) or manmade (industrial chemicals).