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Chapter 1. Plate Tectonics. Chapter 1 Earth’s Interior Key Terms:. Geologist- Scientist that study the forces that make and shape Earth. Geology- The study of planet Earth . Seismic Wave- A vibration traveling through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake. Pressure-

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Plate Tectonics


Chapter 1 earth s interior key terms
Chapter 1 Earth’s Interior Key Terms:

  • Geologist-

    Scientist that study the forces that make and shape Earth.

  • Geology-

    The study of planet Earth.

  • Seismic Wave-

    A vibration traveling through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.

  • Pressure-

    The amount of force pushing on an area.


Chapter 1 key terms
Chapter 1 Key Terms:

  • Crust-

    Layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer surface.

  • Basalt-

    A dark, dense igneous rock found in the oceanic crust.

  • Granite-

    Usually a light colored rock found on Earth’s continental crust.

  • Mantle-

    The layer of hot solid material between the crust and the core.


Chapter 1 key terms1
Chapter 1 Key Terms:

  • Lithosphere-

    A rigid layer made up of upper part of the mantle and the crust.

  • Asthenosphere-

    Soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.

  • Outer Core-

    Layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core.

  • Inner Core-

    Solid iron and nickel in the center of the earth.


Objective

Objective:

The students will determine methods used by geologists to explore the interior of the earth.


Finding direct evidence
Finding directEvidence

  • Geologists study the processes that create Earth’s features and search for clues about Earth’s history.

  • Scientists cannot travel inside the Earth to explore it. So scientists must learn about Earth’s interior, or inside, in other ways.

  • Scientists use drills to get rock samples from inside Earth. The rock samples help scientists learn what conditions were like inside the earth when rocks formed.


Finding indirect evidence
Finding Indirect Evidence

  • Geologists study how seismic waves travel through Earth. Seismic waves are waves made by earthquakes.

  • Seismic waves show that Earth is made up much like an onion.

  • How?

  • It has layers.

    (Like an ogre)


A journey to the center of the earth
A Journey to the Center of the Earth

  • Earth has three main layers. The CRUST is the outside layer, the MANTLE is the middle layer. The CORE is the inside layer.

    Temperature

  • Temperature increases from crust to the core. It is very hot inside Earth. One reason it is so hot is that some substances inside Earth give off energy.

    Pressure

  • Pressure also increases from the crust to the core. Pressure is caused by a force pressing on an area. There is great pressure inside Earth because of all the rock pressing down from above.


Objective1

Objective:

The students will diagram and describe the layers of the earth.



The crust
The Crust

  • The crust is a layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin. The crust is Earth’s thinnest layer. It is only 5 to 70 kilometers thick.

  • The crust that makes up the ocean floors is called the oceanic crust. Oceanic crust is made mostly of a rock called basalt.

  • The crust that makes up the continents is called continental crust. Continental crust is made mostly of a rock called granite.

  • Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust.


The mantle
The Mantle

  • The mantle is the layer below the crust. The mantle is Earth’s thickest layer. The mantle has three parts.

  • The top layer of the mantle, along with the crust, is the lithosphere. The top layer of the mantle is hard rock.

  • The middle layer of the mantle is the asthenosphere. The middle layer is soft rock, like hot road tar.

  • The bottom layer of the mantle is called the lower mantle. It is also hard rock.


The core
The Core

  • The core is Earth’s inside layer. The core has two layers: the outer core and the inner core.

  • The outercore is made of liquid metal. The liquid metal flows in currents. The currents make Earth act like a giant magnet, with north and south poles that attract iron.

  • The inner core is made of solid metal. The inner core is solid because it is under so much pressure.


Parts of the earth1
Parts of the Earth

  • Crust-Mantle

  • Crust-Mantle-Core


Ticket out
Ticket Out

Identify the interior parts of the Earth.

Brain Pop- Earth's Structure

Interior Ticket Out


Section 2 convection currents and the mantle key terms
Section 2Convection Currents and the MantleKey Terms:

  • Heat Transfer-

    The movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler one.

  • Radiation-

    The transfer of energy through empty space.

  • Conduction-

    Heat transferred by direct contact of particles of matter.


Section 2 key terms
Section 2 Key Terms

  • Convection-

    Heat transfer by the movement of heated fluid.

  • Density-

    How much mass there is in a volume of a substance.

  • Convection Current-

    The flow that transfers heat from one part of a fluid to another.


Objective2

Objective:

The students will explain how heat is transferred.


Types of heat transfer
Types of Heat Transfer

  • When an object heats up, particles in the object have more energy and move faster. This energy can travel, or transfer, from a warmer object to a cooler object. This is called heat transfer.

  • There are three types of heat transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection.


Radiation

  • Radiation is the transfer of energy through space. For example, sunlight travels through space by radiation and warms Earth’s surface. Radiation also explains why your hands get warm when you hold them near a fire.


Conduction
Conduction

  • Conduction is the transfer of heat between objects that are touching. If you touch a hot pot, heat travels from the pot to your hand by conduction.


Convection
Convection

  • Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of particles in fluids such as water. Moving particles transfer heat throughout the fluid.


Types of heat transfer1
Types of Heat Transfer

  • REMEMBER:

    • Radiation transfers heat through the air.

    • Conduction transfers heat through solids.

    • Convection transfers heat through liquids.

Convection, Radiation, Conduction


Objective3

Objective:

The students will identify the cause of convection currents.


How can heat cause motion in a liquid
How Can Heat Cause Motion in a Liquid?

  • As you watch the demonstration, think about the following:

    • How do you explain what happened to the droplets of food coloring?

    • Why do you think the second droplet moved in a way that is different from the way the first droplet moved?


Convection in the earth s mantle
Convection in the Earth’s Mantle

  • Remember, convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of particles in fluids. This movement of particles is called a convection current.

  • A convection current starts when there are differences in temperature and density in a fluid. Density is the amount of mass in a given volume of a substance. A high-density substance feels heavy for its size.

    What does this mean???


What does this mean
What does this mean?

  • Suppose you put a pot of soup on a stove. The soup at the bottom of the post gets warm first. Because it is warmer, the soup at the bottom is less dense than the cooler soup above it. So the warmer soup rises. At the same time, the cooler, denser soup sinks to the bottom of the pot.

  • The cooler soup now at the bottom gets warmer, and the process repeats. A constant flow of particles begins. Warmer soup keeps rising, and cooler soup deeps sinking. This movement of particles transfers heat throughout the soup.


Convection currents in earth
Convection Currents in Earth

  • The heat inside Earth causes convection currents in the mantle and outer core.

  • Convection currents inside Earth are like convection currents in the pot of soup. Hot materials at the bottom rise to the top. Cooler materials at the top sink to the bottom.

  • Convection currents in the mantle move very slowly. This is because the mantle is made of solid rock.


Convection currents in earth1
Convection Currents in Earth

  • Remember, Earth is like a giant magnet because of currents in the outer core. Those currents are convection currents.

lithosphere

asthenosphere

mantle


Section 3 drifting continents key terms
Section 3Drifting ContinentsKey Terms:

  • Pangaea-

    The name of the landmass in the theory that all the continents were joined at one time.

  • Continental Drift-

    The idea that the continents slowly moved over the earth’s surface.

  • Fossil-

    Any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.


Objective4

Objective:

The students will explain the theory of continental drift.


The theory of continental drift
The Theory of Continental Drift

  • Some continents are shaped like puzzle pieces. For example, the west side of Africa and the east side of South America look like matching puzzle pieces.


The theory of continental drift1
The Theory of Continental Drift

  • Scientist Alfred Wegener (VAY guhner) tried to explain why continents are shaped this way.

  • Wegener thought that Earth had one big continent about 300 million years ago. The big continent broke into smaller pieces and formed smaller continents. The continents slowly drifted apart. Wegener called this

    CONTINENTAL DRIFT.

  • Wegener named this supercontinent PANGAEA, meaning “all lands.”



Objective5

Objective:

The students will explain evidence of the theory of continental drift.


Wegener s evidence
Wegener’s Evidence

  • Evidence shows that continental drift really happened.

  • Wegener studied information from three sources to prove that his theory was correct. He studied...

    1- Landforms

    2- Fossils

    3- Climate changes


Evidence from landforms
Evidence from Landforms

  • Mountains in Africa and South America line up like they were once part of the same mountain range.


Evidence from fossils
Evidence from Fossils

  • Fossils from plants and animals have been found to support Wegener’s theory. The plant Glossopteris was found in rock in Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica.

  • The seeds would be to large to have been carried to the continents as they are today.


Evidence from climate
Evidence from Climate

  • Other evidence shows that continents’ climates have changed. This could happen if continents had drifted.

  • Tropical plant fossils found on an ice covered island north of Norway.

  • Deep scratches in rock show possible continental glaciers in Africa.

  • Wegener's theory was Earth’s climate has not changed, but the position of the continents has.


Scientists reject wegener s theory
Scientists Reject Wegener’s Theory

  • Wegener could not explain what causes continental drift. So most other scientists of his time thought he was WRONG! New evidence????

  • Wegener used his idea of continental drift to explain how mountains form. Wegener thought mountains form because drifting continents bump into each to other. When this happens, edges of the continents crumple. The crumpled edges form mountains.


Section 4 sea floor spreading key terms
Section 4Sea Floor SpreadingKey Terms:

  • Mid-Ocean Ridge-

    The longest chain of mountains in the world.

  • Sonar-

    A device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects then records the echoes of the sound waves.

  • Sea-Floor Spreading-

    The process of molten material being added to the oceanic crust.


Section 4 key terms
Section 4 Key Terms:

  • Deep-Ocean Trench-

    A deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks towards the mantle.

  • Subduction-

    The process by which the oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.


Objective6

Objective:

The students will describe the process of sea-floor spreading.


Mid ocean ridges
Mid-Ocean Ridges

  • Since the mid-1900s, scientists have used sonar to study the ocean floor. Sonar is a device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects. The longer it takes the sound to bounce back, the farther away the objects are.


Mid ocean ridges1
Mid-Ocean Ridges

  • Using sonar, scientists found long mountain ranges on the ocean floors. Scientists call the mountain ranges mid-ocean ridges. Mid-ocean ridges run through the middle of oceans.

  • In a few places, mid-ocean ridges poke above the surface and form islands. Iceland is the top of a mid-ocean ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean.



What is sea floor spreading
What is Sea-Floor Spreading?

  • Sea-floor spreading is a process that slowly adds new rock to the ocean floor. Scientist Harry Hess came up with the idea of sea-floor spreading in 1960.

  • Here is how sea-floor spreading works. In the center of the mid-ocean ridge, melted rock pushes up through cracks in the ocean floor. The melted rock pushes older, solid rock away from both sides of the ridge. The melted rock cools and forms new solid rock at the center of the ridge.


What is sea floor spreading1
What is Sea-Floor Spreading?

  • This process keeps repeating. Slowly, the ocean floor is pushed farther and farther away from both sides of the mid-ocean ridge. At the same time, new rock keeps adding to the ocean floor in the center of the ridge.

Sea Floor Spreading (4 min.)


Objective7

Objective:

The students will describe and provide evidence of the process of sea-floor spreading.


Evidence for sea floor spreading
Evidence for Sea-Floor Spreading

  • In the 1960s, scientists tried to find evidence of sea-floor spreading. They found evidence from three sources. The three evidences are evidence from molten material, magnetic stripes, and drilling samples.


Evidence from molten material
Evidence from Molten Material

  • Scientists used a submarine to get rocks from a mid-ocean ridge. They found rocks shaped like toothpaste squeezed from a tube. This could only be caused by molten (melted) material from lava that has hardened quickly along cracks of the mid ocean ridge.


Evidence from magnetic stripes
Evidence from Magnetic Stripes

  • Scientists also found evidence from magnetic stripes. Strips of rock on the ocean floor showed that there had been the reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles.

  • These Magnetic Stripes (2 min.) move away from the mid ocean ridge.


Evidence from drilling samples
Evidence from Drilling Samples

  • Scientists used a drill to get rocks from below the ocean floor. Rocks closest to the mid-ocean ridge were the newest. Rocks farthest from the mid-ocean ridge were the oldest.

  • Deep Sea Drilling Project (3 min.)


Objective8

Objective:

The students will describe the process of subduction.


Subduction at deep ocean trenches
Subduction at Deep-Ocean Trenches

  • Sea-floor spreading makes the ocean floor get wider. New rock keeps forming at mid-ocean ridges. Old rock keeps getting pushed farther and farther away from both sides of the ridges.

  • After million of years, old rock reaches underwater canyons, called deep-ocean trenches. At a deep-ocean trench, the rocky crust of the ocean floor bends downward and sinks into the mantle. This process is called subduction. Subduction occurs because the more dense oceanic crust sinks beneath the less dense continentalcrust.


Subduction at deep ocean trenches1
Subduction at Deep-Ocean Trenches

  • Sea-floor spreading and subduction work together. They keep the ocean floors moving like conveyor belts in an airport. As new rock is added to the ocean floors, old rock disappears. Overall, the size of the ocean floors does not change very much.


Subduction at earth s oceans
Subduction at Earth’s Oceans

Pacific Ocean

  • If a deep ocean trench swallows more oceanic crust than the mid-ocean ridge produces, the width of the ocean will shrink.

    Atlantic Ocean

  • The Atlantic has only a few short trenches, which causes the ocean floor to spread.

  • The spreading floor causes the continent of North America to move.


Section 5 plate tectonics key terms
Section 5Plate TectonicsKey Terms:

  • Plate-

    A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of oceanic and continental crust.

  • Scientific Theory-

    A well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.

  • Plate Tectonics-

    The theory that pieces of the Earth’s lithosphere are in constant motion driven by the convection currents in the mantle.


Section 5 key terms
Section 5Key Terms:

  • Fault-

    Breaks in the Earth’s crust where rocks have slipped past each other.

  • Transform Boundary-

    Where plates move in opposite directions.

  • Divergent Boundary-

    Place where two plates move apart.

  • Rift Valley-

    A deep valley that forms when two plates move apart.

  • Convergent Boundary-

    Place where two plates come together.


Objective9

Objective:

The students will explain the theory of plate tectonics.


Hot plates
Hot Plates

  • As you watch the demonstration, think about the following questions:

    • What happens to the sponges as the water heats up?

    • What can you infer is causing the changes you observe?

    • What material represents the mantle in this activity? What represents Earth’s crust?

    • What would happen if we added several more candles under the pan?


A theory of plate motion
A Theory of Plate Motion

  • Earth’s lithosphere is broken into many jagged pieces. The surface is like the shell of a hard-boiled egg that has been dropped. The pieces of Earth’s surface are called plates. Plates carry continents, ocean floors, or both.

  • The theory of plate tectonics (tek TAHN iks) says that Earth’s plates move because of convection currents in the mantle. Currents in the mantle carry plates on Earth’s surface, like currents in water carry boats on a river.


A theory of plate motion1
A Theory of Plate Motion

  • Plates can meet in three different ways. Plates may pull apart, push together, or slide past each other. Wherever plates meet, you usually find volcanoes, mountain ranges, or deep-ocean trenches.


Objective10

Objective:

The students will Identify various types of plate boundaries.


Plate boundaries
Plate Boundaries

  • A plate boundary is where two plates meet. Faults form along plate boundaries. A fault is a break in Earth’s crust where blocks of rock have slipped past each other.


Plate boundaries1
Plate Boundaries

Divergent Boundaries

  • Where two plates move apart, the boundary is called a divergent boundary. A divergent boundary between an oceanic plate and a continental plate forms a mid-ocean ridge. A divergent boundary between two continental plates forms a deep-valley called a rift valley.


Plate boundaries2
Plate Boundaries

Convergent Boundaries

  • Where two plates push together, the boundary is called a convergent boundary. A convergent boundary between an oceanic plate and a continental plate or two oceanic plates forms a deep-ocean trench. A convergent boundary between two continental plates forms a mountain range.



Plate boundaries3
Plate Boundaries

Transform Boundaries

  • Where two plates slide past each other in opposite directions, the plate boundary is called a transform boundary. At

    a transform boundary, earthquakes may occur.


Plate boundaries4
Plate Boundaries

  • Plate movement.html

  • Plate Boundaries. Notebook

  • BrainPop- Plate Tectonics

  • Discovery Education Video


Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Earthquakes


Section 1 earth s crust in motion key terms
Section 1 Earth’s Crust in Motion Key Terms:

  • Earthquake-

    The shaking and trembling as a result of rock moving beneath earth’s surface.

  • Stress-

    A force that acts on rock that changes its shape or volume.

  • Shearing-

    Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions.


Section 1 key terms
Section 1 Key Terms:

  • Tension-

    Pulls on the crust causing it to be thinner in the middle.

  • Compression-

    Squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.

  • Fault-

    A break in Earth’s crust where slabs of rockslip past each other.


Objective11

Objective:

The students will describe how stress forces affect rock.


Earth s crust in motion
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

  • When Earth’s plates move, rocks are pushed and pulled. The pushes and pulls are called stress.

  • Stress adds energy to rocks. Rocks keep storing the energy until they cannot stand any more stress. Then the rocks break or change shape.

    How do rocks change???


Earth s crust in motion1
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

Tension

  • Tension is stress that pulls and stretches rocks. Tension makes rocks thinner in the middle. Tension happens when two plates move apart.


Earth s crust in motion2
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

What does Tension look like?


Earth s crust in motion3
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

Compression

  • Compression is stress that squeezes rocks. Compression makes rocks fold or break. Compression happens when two plates push together.


Earth s crust in motion4
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

What does compression look like?


Earth s crust in motion5
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

Shearing

  • Shearing is stress that pushes rocks in opposite directions. Shearing makes rocks break, slip apart, or change shape. Shearing happens when two plates slip past each other in opposite directions.


Earth s crust in motion6
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Stress

What does shearing look like?


Earth s crust in motion7
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Types of Faults

  • A fault is a break in Earth’s crust where rocks are under stress.

  • There are three different types of faults: normal faults, reverse faults, and strike-slip faults. Each type is caused by a different kind of stress on rocks.


Earth s crust in motion8
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Normal Faults

  • A normal fault happens when tension pulls rocks apart. In a normal fault, the hanging wall slips down and becomes lower than the footwall.


Earth s crust in motion9
Earth’s Crust in Motion

The Hayward Fault in Oakland, California is a normal fault.


Earth s crust in motion10
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Reverse Faults

  • A reverse fault happens when compression pushes rocks together. In a reverse fault, the hanging wall slides up and becomes higher than the footwall.


Earth s crust in motion11
Earth’s Crust in Motion

The New Madrid fault that spans the Mississippi River is a reverse fault.


Earth s crust in motion12
Earth’s Crust in Motion

Strike-Slip Faults

  • A strike-slip fault happens when shearing pushes rocks in opposite directions. In a strike-slip fault, two blocks of rock move past each other, but neither block moves up or down.


Earth s crust in motion13
Earth’s Crust in Motion

The San Andreas fault in California is a strike-slip fault.


Section 2 measuring earthquakes key terms
Section 2 Measuring Earthquakes Key Terms:

  • Focus-

    The point under the Earth’s surface where rock breaks, triggering an earthquake.

  • Epicenter-

    The point on the surface directly above the focus.

  • Seismic waves-

    Vibrations traveling through the Earth carrying energy released by an earthquake.


Section 2 key terms1
Section 2 Key Terms:

  • Seismograph-

    A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth.

  • Mercalliscale-

    A scale that rates earthquakes based on their intensity and how much damage they cause.

  • Richter scale-

    A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of seismograph. This scale rates the size of seismic waves.

  • Moment magnitude scale-

    A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total amount of energy released by an earthquake.


Objective12

Objective:

The students will identify types of seismic waves and describe how they travel through Earth.


How does stress affect Earth’s crust?

  • Be sure to wear your safety goggles!!!

  • Listen to my directions carefully.

  • With your partner, discuss the following:

    • What happened to the wood in each situation?

    • How is the wood like the earth’s crust?

    • What might eventually happen as the forces of plate movement bend the crust?


Measuring earthquakes
Measuring Earthquakes

An earthquake is the shaking that results when rocks move inside Earth. An earthquake is caused by stress along a fault. Stress increases until the rocks break and release stored energy.


Measuring earthquakes1
Measuring Earthquakes

The place where rocks break and cause an earthquake is called a focus. The point on the surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter.


Measuring earthquakes2
Measuring Earthquakes

Seismic Waves

Earthquakes cause waves, called seismic waves, to travel through Earth. Seismic waves carry the energy released by the rocks.


Seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake away from the focus, through Earth’s interior, in all directions


Seismic waves

There are the focus, through Earth’s interior, three kinds of seismic waves: P waves, S waves, and surface waves.

P waves (primary waves) move rocks back and forth, like a wave passing through a spring toy when you push the coils. They compress and expand the ground. P waves are the fastest seismic waves.

Seismic Waves


Seismic waves1

S waves (secondary waves) the focus, through Earth’s interior, move rocks up and down, like a wave passing through a rope when you flick it.They vibrate side to side as well as up and down. S waves travel more slowly than P waves but do more damage.

Seismic Waves


Seismic waves2

Surface waves the focus, through Earth’s interior, are both P waves and S waves that travel along Earth’s surface. Surface waves are the slowest waves, but they also do a lot of damage.

Can you label the seismic waves in this diagram?

BrainPop-Earthquakes

Seismic Waves


Objective13

Objective: the focus, through Earth’s interior,

The students will identify the scales used to measure earthquakes.


Measuring earthquakes3
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Measuring Earthquakes

  • The Mercalli scale is based on the amount of damage an earthquake does. For example, a weak earthquake only rattles the dishes. A strong earthquake can destroy buildings.


Measuring earthquakes4
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

  • The Richter scale is based on the size of the seismic waves. A stronger earthquake makes bigger seismic waves. An instrument called a seismograph measures the size of seismic waves.


Measuring earthquakes5
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

  • The moment magnitude scale is based on the amount of energy an earthquake releases. The amount of energy is based on many things, including the size of the seismic waves.

  • Moment magnitude is the measurement and term generally preferred by scientists and seismologists to the Richter scale because moment magnitude is more precise.

    Comparison of Richter Scale and Moment Magnitude Scale


Measuring earthquakes6
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Let’s see these scales in action at the US Geological Survey (USGS).


Objective14

Objective: the focus, through Earth’s interior,

The students will locate the epicenter of an earthquake.


Measuring earthquakes7
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Locating the epicenter

  • The epicenter is the point on the surface that lies directly above an earthquake’s focus. Scientists use P waves and S waves to

    find an

    earthquake’s

    epicenter.


Measuring earthquakes8
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Locating the epicenter

  • P waves travel faster than S waves. So P waves arrive at a seismograph sooner than S waves. The longer it takes for S waves to reach the seismograph after the P waves have arrived, the farther away the epicenter is.


Measuring earthquakes9
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Locating the epicenter

  • To find the exact location of the epicenter, you need seismographs in three different places. You can draw a circle around each seismograph to show how far the epicenter is from the seismograph. The point where all three circles cross is the epicenter.


Objective15

Objective: the focus, through Earth’s interior,

The students will locate the epicenter of an earthquake.


Measuring earthquakes10
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Recent Earthquake Activity

Let’s explore some earthquakes that have occurred recently.

US Geological Survey website

Why did these earthquakes occur in these locations?

Let’s find out!


Measuring earthquakes11
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Locating the epicenter

Time to complete the “Locating The Epicenter of an Earthquake” Lab.

Let’s look at the directions first.

Now let’s do one together.


Measuring earthquakes12
Measuring Earthquakes the focus, through Earth’s interior,

Locating the epicenter

There are additional ways to find the epicenter of an earthquake when you a provided with different data.

Let’s find out how!


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