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Upcoming. Self-assessment Due 4/4/13 Super Nanny assignment Due 4/4/10; Watch on Lifetime or Internet/Supernanny webpage archive etc. Keep responses brief! Attachment and Temperament Effects of early experience

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Upcoming

Upcoming

  • Self-assessment

    • Due 4/4/13

  • Super Nanny assignment

    • Due 4/4/10; Watch on Lifetime or Internet/Supernanny webpage archive etc.

    • Keep responses brief!

  • Attachment and Temperament

  • Effects of early experience

  • Next up: Cognition & Aggression; Parents, Adolescents & Peers; Stereotypes and Racism


Super nanny

Super Nanny

  • Watch 1 episode of Super Nanny

  • Describe CHILD using Thomas and Chess’ nine dimensions of temperament (reference text, use only relevant dimensions for the particular case).

  • Categorize CHILD using Thomas and Chess’ profiles (3) & Categorize CHILD’s siblings. (reference text)

  • How would you describe the goodness of fit between CHILD and his/her parents? How would you describe the goodness of fit between the siblings and parents? (1-2 sentences)

  • Which attachment classification characterizes CHILD’s relationship with his parents?

  • Which attachment classification characterizes the siblings’ relationships with their parents?


Super nanny thought questions

Super Nanny Thought Questions

  • What does this tell us about predicting attachment classification from other relationships?

  • What are the implications for modifying parental responding to CHILD?

  • What are your predictions of for CHILD at age 21? (based on the research presented and your reading of the text)


Attachment

Attachment

  • Does the past predict the future?

  • Are early experiences the basis of later normal or abnormal behavior?

  • Does the infant’s relationship with his/her primary caregiver predict the quality of later relationships?


What happened to gabriella

What happened to Gabriella?

Gabriella is an attractive and outgoing student at MTC. She will graduate in May and has already accepted a job in the profession of her choice (early childhood development!). She seems to have everything going for her. Yet, something fundamental is missing from her life—Gabriella has never managed to sustain a loving, long-term relationship with an intimate partner.

Was there something about her early childhood experience that caused her inability? What role do early relationships play in determining our characteristics and relationships as adults?


Bowlby ainsworth theory

Bowlby/Ainsworth theory

  • Crucial to have balance

    • exploration of noveltyproximity/protection seeking from familiar

  • The type of attachment is based on the balance

  • Attachment is NOT a single behavior, but rather-A variety of behaviors that vary depending on circumstances


Attachment1

Attachment

  • Individual differences in attachment quality

  • Secure

  • Insecure:

    • Resistant/ambivalent

    • Avoidant

    • Disorganized


Secure attachment

Secure attachment

  • Hallmark of secure attachment observed during REUNION episodes of the Strange Situation

  • If Distressed:

    • immediately seeks and maintains contact

    • contact is effective in terminating distress

  • If Not Distressed:

    • active greeting

    • strong initiation of interaction


Resistant ambivalent attachments

Resistant/Ambivalent Attachments

  • Poverty of exploration

  • Difficulty separating to explore

  • Wary of novel situations and people

  • Mix contact seeking with contact resistance (hitting, kicking, squirming, rejecting toys)

  • Continue to cry and fuss

  • Striking passivity

  • Separation: Melt-down

  • Reunion: Difficulty settling


Avoidant attachments

Avoidant Attachments

  • Independent exploration

  • Readily separates to explore

  • Little affective sharing

  • Affiliative to stranger when caregiver absent (little preference)

  • Turns/ looks/moves away, ignoring

  • Arches back if picked up

  • Separation: Somewhat indifferent

  • Reunion: Active avoidance


Disorganized disoriented

Disorganized/Disoriented

  • No consistent way of relating

  • Shows contradictory features of other patterns

  • May strongly seek contact, then stop, freeze, and avoid caregiver

  • Seems to move in slow motion. May wander with confused, dazed, or fearful facial expression

  • Conflicted

  • Seems to fear caregiver


Three cases

Three cases

  • Which of these three children seemed securely attached? Which were insecurely attached? What evidence do you have for your classifications?

  • What are the primary differences between the children?

  • What social factors might affect a child’s reactions to being alone with a stranger, and to having Mom leave?

  • Do you think these three categories would apply equally to children in all cultures?


The strange situation three cases

The Strange Situation: Three cases

  • A

  • B

  • C


Types of attachment

Types of Attachment

  • Cross-cultural research: More similarities than differences across many different cultures

  • Western Europe

  • Israel

  • Africa

  • Japan


Factors that influence attachment

Factors that influence attachment

  • Quality of caregiving (e.g., responsive, warm, consistent?)

  • Child characteristics

    • Temperament (e.g., inhibited)

    • Aspect of personality with a genetic component -- inborn dispositions

    • Gender (e.g., new toy: angry vs. scared)

    • Appearance (e.g., attractive, premature)

    • What else?


Temperament

Temperament

  • Not a fixed genetic trait

  • Probabilistic, not deterministic

  • Temperament renders some outcomes:

    • very likely

    • some moderately likely

    • some unlikely (although not impossible) depending on experience


Probabilistic not deterministic

Probabilistic, not deterministic


Attachment and temperament

Attachment and temperament

  • Does the past predict the future?

  • Are early experiences the basis of later normal or abnormal behavior?

  • Does the infant’s relationship with his/her primary caregiver predict the quality of later relationships?


Gabriella what happened to her

Gabriella: What happened to her?

Gabriella is an attractive and outgoing student at MTC. She will graduate in May and has already accepted a job in the profession of her choice (early childhood development!). She seems to have everything going for her. Yet, something fundamental is missing from her life—Gabriella has never managed to sustain a loving, long-term relationship with an intimate partner.

Was there something about her early childhood experience that caused her inability? What role do early relationships play in determining our characteristics and relationships as adults?


Do early attachment relationship gets carried forward

Do early attachment relationship gets carried forward?

Bowlby’s answer is:

  • Yes and no

  • Development is complicated

  • IWM’s can be changed by later experiences but

  • usually, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer…


Attachment research findings

Attachment: Research findings

Hazan & Shaver (1987) (Inventory for college students)

  • Results for adults are so similar to those of infant studies that

  • Infant’s relationship with primary caregiver predicts/causes his/her later relationships with peers or romantic partners

  • Conclusion: The past predicts the future

  • Your experiences???

  • Study limitations…


Direct evidence of attachment continuity discontinuity

Direct evidence of attachment continuity/discontinuity:

  • Sroufe & Egeland: Minnesota Parent-Child Project (longitudinal)

  • Overall: Early attachment did NOT predict adult attachment well (little continuity)

  • Participants who started and ended as insecure were more likely to experience abuse than if transitioned to secure - abuse maintains/reinforces insecurity?

  • Participants whose mothers were depressed, more likely to transition from secure to insecure - mother’s depression affects her parenting sensitivity? Environment too chaotic and negative for stability?


What happened to gabriella1

What happened to Gabriella?

  • Participant in an early study of the impact of maternal depression on child outcomes, development, and resilience

  • As an infant and young child experienced inconsistent caregiving and sporadic neglect (maintained insecure attachment) due to mother’s depression

  • Became a well-functioning, successful adult, but continued struggles with insecure attachment in adult relationships…

  • Probabilistic, not deterministic

  • Development is complicated


Significance attachment and later development

Significance: Attachment and later development

INTERNAL WORKING MODELS (IWM):

(i.e., schemas)

  • Children and adults develop complex schemas and mental representations

  • Repeated interactions with caregivers form cognitive expectations that guideattention and memoryabout relationships


Significance attachment and later development1

Significance: Attachment and later development

INTERNAL WORKING MODELS (IWM):

Guide organization of attention and memoryabout relationships

Are largely automatic and unconscious

Can be changed but

Have a propensity for stability


Temperament example

Temperament: Example

  • Some young children very uninhibited with strangers or other unfamiliar things. Likely to become spontaneous, fearless, sociable 10-year-olds.

  • But, a small number of these outgoing infants may become timid later in life because of intervening stressful experiences…And, vice versa

  • Probabilistic, not deterministic


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Development is complicated

  • Low to moderate stability

  • Greater stability for temperament vs. attachment

  • Greater stability linked to extreme or negative life events (e.g., abuse, depression)

  • Probabilistic, not deterministic


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