Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorilation and Genetics. Abigail Hardy. The Mitochondria. Thousands of mitochondria in high energy areas Contact sites facilitate the entry of protiens into matrix Produces ~90% of the cellular ATP in eukaryotic cells. Major Protien Complexes.
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Protons in intermembrane space form an electrochemical gradient, which provides potential energy used by complex V for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
Membrane channel protien (ANT) transports ATP out and ADP into matrix
1:1 ratio of transfer
Both ADP and ATP move freely through the outer membraneOxidative Phosphorylation
Circular (16,568 bp)
2-10 separate mitochondrial gemomes in matrix
Carries information for:
The 13 proteins encoded are involved in OXPHOS functions
Nuclear genes encode about 70 additional protiens that make up the OXPHOS system
A mitochondrion is the joint product of two different genetic systemsMitochondrial DNA
Mitochondria are randomly distributed into daughter cells
Mitochondrial Mutation Load= the ratio of mutated to normal mitochondrial DNA
Homoplasmy= all mitochondria of a cell or tissue have the same genome
Heteroplasmy= contains both mutant and wild-type genomes
Proportion of mutant to wild-type M. DNA determines if energy shortage occurs
Threshold for phenotypic expressionOocyte Mitochondria