Integumentary system
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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. Skin, hair, nails, and glands. What does it mean?. Integere (Latin)- “to cover” Dermato and cutis (Greek and Latin)- “skin” Epi- (Greek)- “upon” or “above”. Why do we need it? overview. Largest organ Retains moisture Sensory receptors for: pain, Heat Touch .

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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

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Integumentary system

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Skin, hair, nails, and glands


What does it mean

What does it mean?

  • Integere (Latin)- “to cover”

  • Dermato and cutis (Greek and Latin)- “skin”

  • Epi- (Greek)- “upon” or “above”


Why do we need it overview

Why do we need it? overview

  • Largest organ

  • Retains moisture

  • Sensory receptors for:

    • pain,

    • Heat

    • Touch

  • Excretes salts

  • Excretes small amounts of waste

  • Stores blood

  • Regulates body temp.


Integumentary system

  • 2 main parts

    • Epidermis and dermis

  • Under the dermis is the hypodermis (supericial fascia- subcutaneous tissue)

    • It acts a foundation not truly part of the skin


Epidermis

Epidermis

  • Surface skin

    • 1st line of defense against infection

    • Contains no blood vessels

    • Layers and layers of epithelial cells


Integumentary system

  • Melanocytes

    • ¼ of stratum basale is made of these

    • Synthesize a pale yellow to black pigment called melanin

    • Cytocrine secretion- melanin is secreted into keratinocytes

  • Melanin- skin color and protection against uv rays

  • Keratinocytes

    • majority of stratum basale

    • Primary epithelial cell of skin


More about the epidermis

More about the epidermis

  • Carotene- in stratum corneum and fatty layers beneath the skin

    • Produces yellowish hue common with Asian ancestry

  • Hemoglobin- cause for pinkish color of Caucasian skin

    • Less melanin, more hemoglobin

  • Albinos- no melanin in skin at all

  • Ridges and grooves- increase friction to grasp other objects

    • Ex. Loops and whorls (fingerprints, palm prints, footprints)


The dermis

The Dermis

  • Also known as the corium

  • Thicker and more fibrous than the dermis

  • 2 layers

  • Fibrolasts- connective tissue develops

  • Macrophages- engulf wastes and foreign microorganisms

  • Adipose tissue

  • Thinnest over eyelids and male sex organs

  • Thicker on back than stomach

  • Thickest on palms of hands and soles of feet


Papillary layer

Papillary Layer

  • Top (outer) layer

  • Soft

  • Elastic, reticular fibers that enter the epidermis

    • Brings blood and nerve endings closer

  • Papillae are finger-like projections- loops of capillaries to increase the surface area of dermis and anchor epidermis

  • Meissner’s corpuscles- nerve endings sensitive to soft touch.

    • In some papillae


Reticular layer

Reticular Layer

  • Rete- net (Latin)

  • Dense, irregular connective tissue

    • Interlacing bundles of collagenous and elastic fibers

      • Strong resistant layer

      • Gives skin strength, extensibility, ad elasticity

  • Oil glands (seaceous glands), sweat glands, fat cells, and larger blood vessels are in this layer


Integumentary system

Hair

  • Follicles embedded in the epidermis and extend to the dermis angle hair growth (curly or straight).

  • Follicle bases are expanded (called bulbs) reach nerve endings

  • Epithelial cells in the bulb divide to create the hair shaft

  • Hair pigment: melanin

    • Gives hair its color

    • Gray and white hair grow when melanin levels decrease and air pockets form

  • sebaceous gland- sebum is produced (cholesterol, fats, and other substances)

    • Keeps hair soft, pliable, and waterproof


Integumentary system

  • Hair has 3 layers

    • Medulla

      • Central core

      • Cells contain eleidin separated by air spaces

      • Fine hair- minimal/ nonexistent

    • Cortex

      • Major part of hair shaft

        • Several layers

        • Flattened cells

      • Elongated pigment-bearing cells in dark hair

      • Air pockets in white hair

    • Cuticle

      • Single layer, overlapping cells with free end pointing up

      • Strengthens and compacts the inner layers

      • Split ends

        • Abrasion wears away the end of the shaft, exposes the medulla and cortex to create the horrid split end


Sweat gross or is it

Sweat? Gross…or is it?

  • 2 types of sweat glands (sudoriferous)

    • Coiled tubules in the dermis

    • Eccrine glands-all over body

      • Watery (99%), salty secretion known as sweat

      • Passes through the epidermis to skin’s surface and opens to a sweat pore

      • Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system

    • Apocrine sweat glands

      • Under the armpits and groin area, associated with hair follicles

      • Same components as eccrine and is odorless

        • Bacteria breaks down apocrine sweat’s fatty acids and proteins

          • Creates the odor accompanying post exercise


Connection to the nervous system

Connection to the Nervous System

  • 4 receptors are involved in the sensation of touch

  • 2 primary temperature receptors

  • Dermis has neuromuscular spindles (proprioceptors)

    • Transmit information to the spinal cord and brain about the lengths and tensions of muscles

      • Provides awareness about the body’s position

    • Spindles help in muscle coordination and muscle action efficiency

    • Jess check with Hans but I think he covers this in his presentation!!!!!!


Integumentary system

Touch

  • Free nerve endings- dendrites are primarily pain receptors

    • Sometimes touch, temperature, and muscles

    • Fibers swell at the end in response

    • Disc-shaped (merkel discs) endings- light-touch receptors in deep layers of epidermis

  • Meissner’s corpuscles- light-touch mechanoreceptors in dermal papillae

    • Egg-shaped capsules of connective tissue around a spiraled end of a dendrite

    • Great amounts in lips and fingertips

    • Sense quick touch, not sustained


Integumentary system

  • Pacinian corpuscles- deep-pressure mechanoreceptor

    • Dendrites surrounded by layers of connective tissue

    • Respond to deep/firm pressure or vibration

    • Visible to the naked eye- 2 millimeters long

  • Hair nerve endings

    • Respond to change in hair position

    • Bare dendrites


Integumentary system

TEMPERATURE

  • End-bulbs of Krause (Krause’s corpuscles)

    • Activate below 68 degrees F

    • Bulbous capsule surrounds the dendrite

    • Commonly found throughout the body in the dermis and lips, tongue, and conjunctiva of the eyes

  • Brushes of Ruffini (Ruffini cylinders/Ruffini’s Corpuscles)

    • Respond between 77 degrees and 113 degrees F

    • Found in dermis and subcutaneous tissue

    • Dendrite endings in flattened capsules

    • There are less then end-bulbs and are deeper in the tissue

      • Human body is less sensitive to heat than to cold


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