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Meanwhile……. While the Roman armies were fighting the Punic Wars in the West. They were also involved in conflicts in the East. About 230 - 210 BC. Rome now controlled the entire eastern Adriatic coast. Rome also defeated King Philip V of Macedonia. King Philip V of Macedonia.

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Meanwhile

Meanwhile…….

  • While the Roman armies were fighting the Punic Wars in the West.

  • They were also involved in conflicts in the East.

  • About 230 - 210 BC


Meanwhile

  • Rome now controlled the entire eastern Adriatic coast.

  • Rome also defeated King Philip V of Macedonia.


King philip v of macedonia

King Philip V of Macedonia

  • King Philip V of Macedonia tried to block Rome’s expansion in the Adriatic Region but failed.


Meanwhile

Rome

  • After defeating King Philip V of Macedonia they fought Seleucid King Antiochus III.

  • King Antiochus III was forced to give Rome all his territories in Asia Minor..


Meanwhile

  • In 133 BC Roman legions seized a kingdom in Asia Minor (Pergamum)

  • Rome left Syria and Egypt independent.

  • But they forced all other Asia Minor rulers into alliances


Meanwhile

  • In 130 BC The Romans were the undisputed masters of the Mediterranean.

  • They started to call the Mediterranean “Mare Nostrum” meaning “Our Sea”


Exploiting the provinces

Exploiting the Provinces

  • Rome organized its non-Italian territories into provinces that had to pay tribute to Rome and recognize its authority.

  • The Senate appointed governors called proconsuls to look after these provinces

  • At first these provinces seemed to be a source of endless wealth for Rome


Exploiting the provinces1

Exploiting the Provinces

  • Since the provinces did not like this treatment they rebelled.

  • Rome had to place legions in most of the provinces.

  • By having to place legions in the provinces it ended up costing more money and the provinces began to strain all of Rome’s resources.

  • Eventually the provinces did accept and adjust to Roman rule.


Changing of the countryside

Changing of the Countryside

  • The Roman’s acquired property in these new provinces.

  • The Roman’s rented this land to the latifundia who used slaves to work their land.

  • Since they had cheap labour they produce and sell their crops very cheap. This ended up putting many farmers out of business


Crowding the cities

Crowding the Cities

  • Since the provinces were struggling financially:

  • Poor farmers streamed into Rome because bread cost pennies and public shows and games were free.

  • However, when they arrived in Rome they discovered that most of the jobs were already being completed by slaves.


Crowding the cities1

Crowding the Cities

  • Since there were not many jobs to be found the citizens were hungry.

  • The poor hungry citizens would vote for any leader who promised cheaper food and more amusements.


Reformers and generals

Reformers and Generals

  • Many people living in Rome did not like what was happening in the city.

  • The disliked the latifundia because they were ruining Italy. There were no jobs because of the latifundia.

  • The poor plebeians were also going to ruin the city because they were costing so much to look after.


Reformers and generals1

Reformers and Generals

  • Tiberius Gracchus (Grandson to Scipio)

  • Won office in 133 BC and proposed a law to take back land from the latifundia and give the land back to the citizens.

  • The Senate opposed this law but it still passed because of the plebeian Assembly of Tribes.

  • After this law passed Tiberius and 300 of his followers were killed in a riot.


Reformers and generals2

Reformers and Generals

  • Gaius Gracchus (Tiberius’s brother) was elected 10 years later

  • The persuaded the plebeian Assembly to give more land to farmers. Gaius also set up a government program to sell grain at low prices.

  • 121 BC Gaius was killed in a riot planned by his enemies.

  • 111 BC The Senate put a stop to the land reforms.


Julius caesar

Julius Caesar

  • Engineering an Empire - Rome - 1_9.mp4


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