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Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure. Jack Lesko Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute Materials Response Group Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics. How are we going to fix this?. Statistics on Bridges.

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Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure

Jack Lesko

Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute

Materials Response Group

Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics


Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

How are we

going to fix this?


Statistics on bridges

Statistics on Bridges

  • 600,000 Bridges in the US

    • 4-10% in a state of advanced decay

    • 1/3 “structurally deficient" or "functionally obsolete"

    • 132,000 deficiencies attributed to decks decay

  • Cost of rehabilitation$50 billion by the year 2000 or $167 billion for bridges & highways

  • Yet, only $5 billion is annually budgeted


What s being done

What’s being done?

  • Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21) two central goals:

    A.) Reduced user delays

    B.) Deployment of advanced materials (Innovative Bridge & Construction Program)

  • Other Efforts

    • Civil Engineer Research Foundation

    • NIST

    • Composites Institute - CFA/MDA

    • AASHTO

    • ACI


High performance materials status

High Performance Materials Status


Barriers to routine use of hpm

Administrative

Fragmentation of the materials suppliers, manufacturers, structural engineers & construction industry

Lack of interdisciplinary training for design engineers

Cost (first vs. life cycle)

Limited commercial capital for development of new systems

Incremental - piecemeal approach to FRP bridge design

Technical

Lack of DOT design specifications

Performance vs. Material specification

Lack of sufficient long-term data and experience

Plethora of new materials, additives & combinations

One-for-One material substitution

Connection technologies

Barriers to Routine use of HPM


Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

Composites:

Directional Stiffness & Strength

Transverse

Longitudinal

T-Transverse

L- Longitudinal

Strength Stiffness

Failure mode

L / T 40:1 25:1


Laminated composites

Laminated Composites


Orthotropy

Orthotropy

Uni-directional

Cross-ply

Angle-ply

Quasi-Isotropic


Bolted joints orthotropy

Bolted Joints & Orthotropy

FRP material and orientation influence failure mode and load


Unidirectional frp vs steel concrete

Unidirectional FRP vs Steel/Concrete

Carbon/Epoxy

E=20-50 Msi

r=0.06lbs./in3

Can we design with a brittle material like FRP?

400

300

200

100

0

Glass/Epoxy

E=7-10 Msi

r=0.07lbs./in3

Stress (ksi)

Steel

E=30 Msi

r=0.28lbs./in3

05102030

Strain (%)


Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

FRP Bridge Decks

  • Rapid rehabilitation technology

  • Raise live load rating by reducing dead load

    Concerns

    • Connections remain a problem (girder-to-deck & guardrail-to-deck)

    • Internal bonding

    • Stiffness criteria for design (L/?)

    • Wearing surface


Deck connections

Deck Connections

How do we efficiently, durably and quickly make inter panel and deck to girder connections?


Guradrails for frp decks

Guradrails for FRP Decks

Guardrails are attached using either top or side mounting


Load resistance factor design lrfd

Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

Resistance

Load

Risk

How does one incorporate acceptable design approaches for DOT’s?


Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite

Structures & Adhesive Systems


Smith road bridge butler county oh

Smith Road Bridge, Butler County, OH

  • 10m (33’) Span

  • 7.3m (24’) Width

  • 0.84m (2’-9”) Depth

  • 10 kg (22 kip) Weight

  • HS20-44

Martin Marietta Materials


Smith road bridge butler county oh1

Smith Road Bridge, Butler County, OH

Three deck and superstructure elements make up the FRP bridge


Butler county bridge monitoring

Bondline

FO gages

Bridge Deck

Internal

FO gages

External

FO gages

Butler County Bridge Monitoring

  • Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) used as a strain sensor

  • “Sapphire” chemical sensors for monitoring adhesive cure and moisture uptake (Foster-Miller)


Intrinsic fabry perot interferometer ifpi

Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI)

I(l)

l

I(l)

l

li

Wave length sensitivity based on grating size


Field bond line moisture absorption

Field Bond Line -Moisture Absorption

Bond Line

Adhesive -

Coclesive 1090

(2 Part Epoxy)

Fiber-Optic Sensors in Bond Line:

“Sapphire Fiber Sensors”


Fiber optic sensors sapphire fiber data

Absorbance

Aug 27th, 1998

Jan 28th, 1998

Nov 17th, 1997

July 8th 1997

3600

3400

3200

3000

2800

Wavelength (cm-1)

Fiber Optic Sensors:Sapphire Fiber Data

Infrared spectroscopy of bondline cure


Fourier transform infrared ftir spectra of derakane 441 400

1

mol

H

0 : 4

mol

OH

2

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)Spectra of Derakane 441-400

Aged in water at 65°C until saturation.

1.15

“OH” Stretch Region

1.10

1.05

1.00

0.95

Aged

0.90

Absorbance

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

Unaged

0.65

0.60

0.55

4000

3800

3600

3400

3200

2800

2600

2400

Wavenumbers (cm-1)


Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

Composite Pultrusion Process

  • Constant cross section

  • High volume production


Martin marietta materials inc

Martin Marietta Materials, Inc

Alliance with

Decks installed or successful bid

IA, NY, PA, MD, OH, CA


Martin marietta materials inc1

Martin Marietta Materials, Inc

Top surface completion of field joints

Application of the joining adhesive


Creative pultruion

Creative Pultruion

  • Wickwire Run, Aug. 1997

    • 30’ Span

    • 21.7’ Width

    • HS25

  • Laurel Lick, May 1997

    • 20’ Span

    • 16’ Width

    • HS20-44


Bonding of superdeck

Bonding of SuperDeck

Adhesive bonging area a source of fatigue and strength concerns


Hardcore composites llc

Hardcore Composites, LLC

& Zoltek

Market focus: short span, rapid installation, weight savings

5% of bridge rehab market

Cecil County Bridge, MD

9+ decks or bridges in place: DE, NY, PA, OH, MD

Magazine Ditch Bridge, DE


Resin infusion

Resin Infusion

  • SCRIMP™ process

  • Net shape parts

  • Custom tooling

  • Typically room temperature cure

VARTM = Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding


Wilson run bridge valley forge national historic park pa

Wilson Run Bridge, Valley Forge National Historic Park, PA

  • One of the state's oldest wrought iron truss bridges

  • 2- Hour installation

Composites


Hardcore deck installation

Hardcore Deck Installation

Structural adhesive

Splice plate

Cut-away of splice plate to transfer shear and moment.

The Salem Ave. project in Ohio is presently experiencing problems due to failure of joining technologies used and field installed


Jack lesko macromolecules and interfaces institute materials response group

Troutville Weigh Station Deck Test Bed

Section A-A

10 ft.

5’ x 15’ Composite Deck Section

Excavated panel of PCC pavement in weigh station off- ramp

Adjustable/Simulated bridge girders

Traffic

15 ft.

Section A-A

Steel access panels

Plan View

Girder centerline

Facility installed November 1999


Frp deck in service

FRP Deck In-Service

Troutville, VA Weigh Station

Interstate 81

5,000 vehicles/day

Installed Nov. 1999


Location of damage to deck 2

Location of Damage to Deck #2

Foundation girder connections loosen

Deck-to-girder connections loosen

May 2000


Deck connections1

Deck Connections

wearing course

steel sleeve

support beam flange

Deck #1

Deck #3

Deck #2

“Hook bolt to tie rod”


Deck 2 service damage

Deck #2 – Service Damage

Wear surface cracking corresponding to tube widths

Adhesive delamination & tube failure at connection


Frp strengthening

FRP Strengthening

  • External strengthening

  • Hoop reinforcement


External strengthening

External Strengthening


Where to next for adhesives in an frp infrastructure

Where to Next for Adhesives in an FRP Infrastructure?


Snap together connections

Snap Together Connections?

Courtesy of Brandt Goldsworthy & Associates


Comments frp bridges

Comments: FRP Bridges

  • New structural forms appropriate for FRP ($, manufacturability, constructability)

  • Vertical integration of industry, design, and construction

  • Emphasis on joining & connections

  • Must beat other/conventional designs on first and or installed cost

  • Interdisciplinary effort - education


What s needed

What’s Needed?

  • Integration of the adhesive folks with the Civil Infrastructure folks

  • Design and manufacturing approach for “off-the-shelf” deck system

  • Connection designs for rehabilitation situations

  • Design approaches to field installation of adhesive bonds

  • Design approach including reliability and warrantee assessment

  • Crash tested guard-rails for FRP decks and girder system bridges

Near-Term

Long-Term


Questions

QUESTIONS


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