Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure. Jack Lesko Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute Materials Response Group Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics. How are we going to fix this?. Statistics on Bridges.
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Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure
Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute
Materials Response Group
Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics
How are we
going to fix this?
A.) Reduced user delays
B.) Deployment of advanced materials (Innovative Bridge & Construction Program)
Fragmentation of the materials suppliers, manufacturers, structural engineers & construction industry
Lack of interdisciplinary training for design engineers
Cost (first vs. life cycle)
Limited commercial capital for development of new systems
Incremental - piecemeal approach to FRP bridge design
Lack of DOT design specifications
Performance vs. Material specification
Lack of sufficient long-term data and experience
Plethora of new materials, additives & combinations
One-for-One material substitution
Directional Stiffness & Strength
L / T 40:1 25:1
FRP material and orientation influence failure mode and load
Can we design with a brittle material like FRP?
FRP Bridge Decks
How do we efficiently, durably and quickly make inter panel and deck to girder connections?
Guardrails are attached using either top or side mounting
How does one incorporate acceptable design approaches for DOT’s?
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite
Structures & Adhesive Systems
Martin Marietta Materials
Three deck and superstructure elements make up the FRP bridge
Wave length sensitivity based on grating size
(2 Part Epoxy)
Fiber-Optic Sensors in Bond Line:
“Sapphire Fiber Sensors”
Aug 27th, 1998
Jan 28th, 1998
Nov 17th, 1997
July 8th 1997
Infrared spectroscopy of bondline cure
0 : 4
Aged in water at 65°C until saturation.
“OH” Stretch Region
Composite Pultrusion Process
Decks installed or successful bid
IA, NY, PA, MD, OH, CA
Top surface completion of field joints
Application of the joining adhesive
Adhesive bonging area a source of fatigue and strength concerns
Market focus: short span, rapid installation, weight savings
5% of bridge rehab market
Cecil County Bridge, MD
9+ decks or bridges in place: DE, NY, PA, OH, MD
Magazine Ditch Bridge, DE
VARTM = Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding
Cut-away of splice plate to transfer shear and moment.
The Salem Ave. project in Ohio is presently experiencing problems due to failure of joining technologies used and field installed
Troutville Weigh Station Deck Test Bed
5’ x 15’ Composite Deck Section
Excavated panel of PCC pavement in weigh station off- ramp
Adjustable/Simulated bridge girders
Steel access panels
Facility installed November 1999
Troutville, VA Weigh Station
Installed Nov. 1999
Foundation girder connections loosen
Deck-to-girder connections loosen
support beam flange
“Hook bolt to tie rod”
Wear surface cracking corresponding to tube widths
Adhesive delamination & tube failure at connection
Where to Next for Adhesives in an FRP Infrastructure?
Courtesy of Brandt Goldsworthy & Associates