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The North American Colonies. A Background. Key Questions. Who came here? Who was already here? Who are the key players (people & nations) Why did they come? Where did they settle? How does this lead to differences between the colonies?. European Exploration. Fueled by the Renaissance

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Key questions
Key Questions

  • Who came here?

  • Who was already here?

  • Who are the key players (people & nations)

  • Why did they come?

  • Where did they settle?

  • How does this lead to differences between the colonies?

European exploration
European Exploration

  • Fueled by the Renaissance

    • The “questioning spirit”

  • Seeking trade routes

    • Cheaper goods

    • More profit

    • More money = more power for monarchs

  • Scientific developments

    • Compass

    • caravel

Spain makes claims
Spain Makes Claims

  • 1492

    • Spain united & Muslims driven out

    • Spain to rival Portugal

    • Columbus sails west to go east

    • October lands in Bahamas

Spanish claims
Spanish Claims

  • Caribbean Islands

  • Mexico

  • Peru

  • Florida

  • What was to be come the western United States

Question time
Question Time!

  • What language is the dominant language in the Canadian city of Toronto?

    • English

  • What language is the dominant language in the Canadian cities of Montreal and Quebec?

    • French

  • Why?!

  • The creation of new france
    The Creation of New France

    • The Northwest Passage

      • Fabled route through N. America to Pacific Ocean

    • French sent explorers to find it

      • Multiple explorations made

      • No passage found

      • No vast wealth found

      • Great fishing of Newfoundland

        • Why is this important?

    The creation of new france1
    The Creation of New France

    • 1602: Samuel de Champlain hired to found colony in Canada

      • Set up a primarily Huguenot colony

      • Very friendly with the Indians

      • Many Huguenots traded with Canada; few settled there

      • Catholic priests (Jesuits) eagerly converted Indians

      • Catholicism became only religion of New France

    The creation of new france2
    The Creation of New France

    • New France created to make money through fur trade and timber not farms

      • Few settled in New France

    • French continued to explore N. America

      • Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet found Mississippi River

      • They claimed region for Louis XIV & called it Louisiana

    The creation of new france3
    The Creation of New France

    • Mississippi Gulf region terrible for living but great for growing sugar, rice & indigo

      • Slaves definitely needed for labor

    • French colonized St Domingue& Martinique

      • Primarily sugar plantations here

    • Attempted settlements in the Carolinas

      • Spanish created St Augustine in Florida to counter the French


    • What were some of the reasons behind Europeans starting to explore N. America beginning in the late 15th century?

    • What territories did the Spanish claim in N. America?

    • Who founded New France?

    • What major river did Marquette & Joliet find?

    The dutch
    The Dutch

    • Profit motivated the Dutch

      • Relatively tolerant; not overly religious

    • Founded Dutch East India Co. to compete with Portugal in East Indies & looked to expand into N. America

    • Dutch sent Henry Hudson to explore and sailed up river that now bears his name

    The dutch1
    The Dutch

    • Dutch refugees built fort at Fort Orange (Albany) but not permanent

    • Dutch claimed Hudson, Delaware & Connecticut valleys

    • Dutch bought Mannahatta Island (Manhattan) from Indians

    • Permanent Fort Orange established for fur trade with Iroquois

    The dutch2
    The Dutch

    • Created a pluralist society

      • Not just Dutch or Protestant

        • 1640s: 18 different languages spoken by 450 inhabitants of New Amsterdam (NY)

      • Tough to create unity against Indians or other Europeans

    The english arrive finally
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • English made loose claim to N. American coast due to Cabot’s expedition to find Northwest Passage in 1497

      • He failed & England ignored the new world for 80 years

    • England’s attention was taken by Protestant Reformation & war with Spain

      • Colonization would have to wait

    The english arrive finally1
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • Henry VIII breaks with Catholic Church

    • Forms Church of England (Protestant)

      • Son Edward VI takes over embraces Protestantism

      • Daughter Mary takes over & embraces Catholicism

      • Daughter Elizabeth takes over embraces Protestantism

    • Under Elizabeth I, England would begin to settle N. America

    The english arrive finally2
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • Under James I, those who wished to “purify” the Anglican Church received permission to settle in New World

      • Puritans would wind up in Plymouth in modern Massachusetts

    • Joint-stock companies formed to fund the settlement of colonies in New World

      • What is the point of having a business?

    The english arrive finally3
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • English attempted to make settlements on the east coast including in the Carolinas

      • Failed Roanoke colony

    • 1607: Virginia Company charted

      • Attempted one colony in Maine (failed) & one in Chesapeake Bay are

      • 104 settlers created Jamestown on James River

    The english arrive finally4
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • Jamestown

      • Unhealthy

        • Malaria, typhus, dysentery

      • Drought

      • “gentlemen”

      • “starving time” winter of 1609-1610

      • Colony abandoned but quickly resettled

    The english arrive finally5
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • Jamestown settlers forced to work

      • Governed by company who could make the rules

        • Religion?

    • Tobacco introduced as cash crop

      • Soon grown in every available space in the colony

    • 1618: colonists granted right to create first General Assembly to make laws for colony

      • Met in July 1619

      • Called House of Burgesses

    The english arrive finally6
    The English Arrive. Finally.

    • Headright system introduced to increase settlement

      • Colonists received 50 acres of land for every person whose passage to Virginia they paid for

    • 1619: first Africans delivered by the Dutch

      • Servants, not slaves

      • Slaves imported by 1622


    • Founded by Catholic George Calvert, Lord Baltimore

      • Charter granted for colony to be established for Catholics to practice freely

      • Colony owned by Baltimore

        • Proprietary colony

        • Could do whatever he wished so long as it was not against English law

    George Calvert,

    Lord Baltimore

    The puritans
    The Puritans

    • What is the root of the word?

    • Puritans in England fled to Netherlands to escape persecution

      • Children becoming “too Dutch”

      • Joined with Puritans in England to raise money to sail to America

      • Got permission from Virginia Company to settle in their colony

      • Mayflower sailed for Virginia September 1620

    The puritans1
    The Puritans

    • Mayflower eventually landed at Plymouth Bay

      • Theywere outside of the Virginia Co. territory & were squatters (no permission to be there)

      • Pilgrims drew up Mayflower Compact

        • Not a constitution but an agreement to follow majority rule

      • First winter difficult; more than half died

        • Second harvest bountiful; basis for Thanksgiving


    • Who settled the Hudson, Connecticut & Delaware valleys?

    • What motivated the Dutch to create colonies?

    • Why did England wait so long to settle in N. America?

    • Who founded Maryland and what kind of colony was it?

    • What is the headright system?

    Massachusetts bay
    Massachusetts Bay

    • 1625: Charles I persecutes Puritans

      • English economy weakens

    • 1629: Charter obtained from king for Massachusetts Bay Co.

      • Going to establish colony in New England

    • 1630: 1000 settlers (not all Puritans) settle in Salem

      • Charter is basis for colony’s laws

    Massachusetts bay1
    Massachusetts Bay

    • 1630: John Winthrop: “We shall be as a city on a hill”

      • Looking to create Puritan utopia

    • 1643: between 13-20K settlers arrived

    • Government based on charter which was not made public knowledge

      • Why?!

    Massachusetts bay2
    Massachusetts Bay

    • Colony’s charter provided for a General Court

      • Made up of “freemen”

        • Essentially stockholders & family heads

    • General court chose “assistants” who in turn chose governor and assistant governor

    • Winthrop violated charter & claimed he had power to make the laws

    • Charter gave that power to General Court

    Massachusetts bay3
    Massachusetts Bay

    • General Court eventually became representative body made of representatives from the various towns

      • Membership in a church became requirement to vote (not stock ownership)

    • Winthrop was attempting to preserve Puritan purity

    Massachusetts bay4
    Massachusetts Bay

    • Maintaining Puritan purity very difficult

      • Not everyone was a Puritan

      • Merchant class favored toleration

      • More settlers meant more business meant more money and power

      • Excessive punishments for gambling, adultery, & blasphemy

      • Dissenting views not accepted; heretics thrown out

    Rhode island
    Rhode Island

    • Roger Williams irritated everyone

      • Puritan churches not pure; no church can be pure

      • King cannot give away land of another people (Indians)

      • There must be complete separation of church & state

        • Laws requiring religious conformity were bad

    Rhode island1
    Rhode Island

    • Williams arrested & to be sent back to England

      • Escaped and settled in Providence

      • Government had no authority over religion

      • Dissenters welcome

    • Anne Hutchinson also questioned established Puritan thinking & was banished to Rhode Island


    • Who said “we shall be as a city on a hill?”

    • What did he mean?

    • How do the Puritans “create” Rhode Island?

    • Which segment of Massachusetts Bay favored religious toleration and why?

    • What gave a person the right to vote in Massachusetts?

    New york new jersey
    New York & New Jersey

    • New Amsterdam settled by Dutch in 1620s

      • Dutch claimed NY due to Hudson’s exploration in 1609

    • Charles II claimed NY for England because it was part of the Virginia Charter of 1606

    • 1664: English fleet sent to NY; Dutch surrendered without fight

    New york new jersey1
    New York & New Jersey

    • NY was buffer between Iroquois 5 Nations & settlers

    • James’ colony was without an elected assembly; Dutch don’t mind so much but English get irritated

    • Land to west of Hudson given to 2 Carolina proprietors to create colony of New jersey

    New york new jersey2
    New York & New Jersey

    • English more inclined to settle in NJ with its elected assembly & religious freedom

      • Dutch stayed in NY

    • NJ cut into 2 separate colonies, East & West & reunited in 1702


    • Literally, “Penn’s forested land”

    • Supposed to be refuge for Quakers

      • Quakers: refused to take oaths (loyalty) and were pacifists

        • How will these positions make the other colonists feel?

    • Land came from debt owed to William Penn’s father by English crown


    • NJ’s religious freedom enticed Quakers to settle there & they migrated to west side of Delaware River

    • Penn kept relations with Indians positive

      • Quakers were pacifists who bought Indian lands

        • Peace for 50 years as a result


    • Created free government

      • Male, property-owning taxpayers could vote

      • Governor had no veto

      • No established church

      • Freedom from/of religion

    • Penn later bought 3 counties south of Pennsylvania which eventually became Delaware

    The carolinas
    The Carolinas

    • Named for Charles II

    • Originally one large colony with 2 distinct regions

    • Colony granted to 8 “True and Absolute Lords & Proprietors”

    • North largely under-developed while SC later developed rice & indigo cultivation


    • Named for George II

    • Established by James Ogelthorpe as refuge for England’s poor

    • No rum, slavery (to leave room for the poor), or brandy allowed in

    • Efforts to develop silk & wine production failed

    • Charter expired in 1759 & GA became royal colony