Lan design
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LAN Design. First step is establishing goals of the design. This includes: Functionality. Scalability. Adaptability. Manageability. Step 1: Analyze Requirements. Gather data - what are your customer’s needs? What is the geographical layout? What are the critical data and operations?

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LAN Design

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Lan design

LAN Design

  • First step is establishing goals of the design.

  • This includes:

    • Functionality.

    • Scalability.

    • Adaptability.

    • Manageability.


Step 1 analyze requirements

Step 1: Analyze Requirements

  • Gather data - what are your customer’s needs?

  • What is the geographical layout?

  • What are the critical data and operations?

  • What is availability?

  • Network traffic loads, required throughput, future needs (growth).

  • What problem are you trying to solve?

  • Segmentation.


Step 2 develop lan topology

Step 2: Develop LAN topology

  • Major parts of network topology:

    • Layer 1: Physical Layer - cabling, and physical layout. Designed with speed and expansion capability.

    • Layer 2: Data Link Layer - microsegmentation with bridges and switches, limits collision domain size.

    • Layer 3: Network Layer - routers to limit broadcast domain. VLANs.


Layer 1 media and topology

Layer 1 - Media and Topology

  • We concentrate on star/extended star topology.

  • In star, the MDF is the central point.

    • Horizontal cabling from MDF to workstations.

    • Catchment area (200m) within 100m Cat 5 UTP limit on horizontal cabling.

  • Extended star - IDFs or secondary wiring closets, gives multiple catchment areas.

    • Fiber optic for vertical cabling (longer runs).

    • Vertical cabling designed as fast link in network, at least 100 Mbps.


Layer 2 switching

Layer 2 Switching

  • Collisions and collision domain size affect network performance.

  • Microsegmentation using bridges and switches can reduce collision domain size and eliminate collisions.

    • Switchs with one hosts per port has a collision domain of 2.

  • Asymmetric switches can give 10 Mbps to workstations and 100 Mbps to vertical cabling.


Migration to higher bandwidth

Migration to Higher Bandwidth

  • Include additional vertical cabling for future growth (higher bandwidth).

  • Bandwidth can be increased by changing to 100 Mbps ports on switches, and using 100 Mbps hubs.

  • Document speed of each cable drop.


Layer 3 routing implementation

Layer 3: Routing Implementation

  • Routers provide:

    • Both physical and logical segmentation.

    • Broadcast filtering.

    • Connectivity to WANs.

  • Routers vs Switches

    • routers limit broadcast domains, switches limit collision domains.

    • Routers solve problems with excessive broadcasts, can provide firewalls, security.

    • Routers provide built-in scaling (subnetting).

    • Routers are more expensive and harder to configure.


File servers and traffic patterns

File Servers and Traffic Patterns

  • Applications (servers) are categorized as enterprise servers or workgroup servers.

  • Enterprise servers:

    • Support all users; e.g. email, DNS.

    • Located at MDF.

  • Workgroup servers:

    • Support a specific set of users.

    • Located at IDF, closest to specific users.

  • Consider faster speed for servers.


Documentation

Documentation

  • Physical map - location of MDF, IDFs, hosts; include cutsheet (cabling runs).

  • Logical Network maps :

    • Location of MDF and IDFs, and cabling between - indicate spare cables.

  • IP addressing scheme - design a consistent addressing scheme throughout the network.


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