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LAN Design. First step is establishing goals of the design. This includes: Functionality. Scalability. Adaptability. Manageability. Step 1: Analyze Requirements. Gather data - what are your customer’s needs? What is the geographical layout? What are the critical data and operations?

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lan design
LAN Design
  • First step is establishing goals of the design.
  • This includes:
    • Functionality.
    • Scalability.
    • Adaptability.
    • Manageability.
step 1 analyze requirements
Step 1: Analyze Requirements
  • Gather data - what are your customer’s needs?
  • What is the geographical layout?
  • What are the critical data and operations?
  • What is availability?
  • Network traffic loads, required throughput, future needs (growth).
  • What problem are you trying to solve?
  • Segmentation.
step 2 develop lan topology
Step 2: Develop LAN topology
  • Major parts of network topology:
    • Layer 1: Physical Layer - cabling, and physical layout. Designed with speed and expansion capability.
    • Layer 2: Data Link Layer - microsegmentation with bridges and switches, limits collision domain size.
    • Layer 3: Network Layer - routers to limit broadcast domain. VLANs.
layer 1 media and topology
Layer 1 - Media and Topology
  • We concentrate on star/extended star topology.
  • In star, the MDF is the central point.
    • Horizontal cabling from MDF to workstations.
    • Catchment area (200m) within 100m Cat 5 UTP limit on horizontal cabling.
  • Extended star - IDFs or secondary wiring closets, gives multiple catchment areas.
    • Fiber optic for vertical cabling (longer runs).
    • Vertical cabling designed as fast link in network, at least 100 Mbps.
layer 2 switching
Layer 2 Switching
  • Collisions and collision domain size affect network performance.
  • Microsegmentation using bridges and switches can reduce collision domain size and eliminate collisions.
    • Switchs with one hosts per port has a collision domain of 2.
  • Asymmetric switches can give 10 Mbps to workstations and 100 Mbps to vertical cabling.
migration to higher bandwidth
Migration to Higher Bandwidth
  • Include additional vertical cabling for future growth (higher bandwidth).
  • Bandwidth can be increased by changing to 100 Mbps ports on switches, and using 100 Mbps hubs.
  • Document speed of each cable drop.
layer 3 routing implementation
Layer 3: Routing Implementation
  • Routers provide:
    • Both physical and logical segmentation.
    • Broadcast filtering.
    • Connectivity to WANs.
  • Routers vs Switches
    • routers limit broadcast domains, switches limit collision domains.
    • Routers solve problems with excessive broadcasts, can provide firewalls, security.
    • Routers provide built-in scaling (subnetting).
    • Routers are more expensive and harder to configure.
file servers and traffic patterns
File Servers and Traffic Patterns
  • Applications (servers) are categorized as enterprise servers or workgroup servers.
  • Enterprise servers:
    • Support all users; e.g. email, DNS.
    • Located at MDF.
  • Workgroup servers:
    • Support a specific set of users.
    • Located at IDF, closest to specific users.
  • Consider faster speed for servers.
documentation
Documentation
  • Physical map - location of MDF, IDFs, hosts; include cutsheet (cabling runs).
  • Logical Network maps :
    • Location of MDF and IDFs, and cabling between - indicate spare cables.
  • IP addressing scheme - design a consistent addressing scheme throughout the network.
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