Carcinogenesis. Patricia Jakel, RN,MN,OCN. What Is Cancer?. What is cancer?. A series of cellular, genetic aberrations that cause abnormal cell proliferation. Unchecked local growth (tumor formation) and invasion of surrounding tissue.
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Patricia Jakel, RN,MN,OCN
What Is Cancer?
Pathology-cancer arsies due to cumulative alteration in a cell’s genes
1. Proto-oncogenes- the genetic portion of the DNA that regulates normal cell growth and repair: mutation may allow cell to proliferate beyond normal body needs.
Cancer Tends to Involve Multiple Mutations
Benign tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis
Malignant cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites
Mutation inactivates suppressor gene
Mutations inactivate DNA repair genes
Proto-oncogenes mutate to oncogenes
More mutations, more genetic instability, metastatic disease
Invasion and Metastasis
Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels
Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites
Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location
Carcinoma in Situ
Carcinoma in situ (severe dysplasia)
Different Kinds of Cancer
Some common carcinomas:
Some common sarcomas:
Cancer Prefixes Point to Location
erythro-red blood cell
Why Cancer Is Potentially Dangerous
Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream
General Relationship Between Tumor Grade and Prognosis
Five-Year Survival Rates forPatients with Melanoma (by stage)
Stage at Time of Initial Diagnosis
What Causes Cancer?
Some viruses or bacteria
Regions of Highest Incidence
Heredity? Behaviors? Other Factors?
Colon Cancer(Number of new cases per 100,000 people)
(Number of new cases per 100,000 people)
Japanese familiesin U.S.
Japanese familiesin U.S.
Tobacco Use and Cancer
Some Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
X-ray Dose(atomic radiation)
Virus inserts and changes genes forcell growth
Examples of Human Cancer Viruses
Some Viruses Associated with Human Cancers
AIDS and Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Bacteria and Stomach Cancer
Patient’s tissue sample
Heredity Can Affect Many Types of Cancer
Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer
Mutations and Cancer
Genes Implicated in Cancer
Cancer viruses or bacteria
Lung Cancer Risk Increases with Cigarette Consumption
Lung Cancer Risk
0 15 30
Cigarettes Smoked per Day
Protect Yourself From Excessive Sunlight
Avoid Cancer Viruses
HPV Infection Increases Risk for Cervical Cancer
Cervical Cancer Risk
Women infected with HPV
Avoid Carcinogens at Work
Some Carcinogens in the Workplace
Microscopic Appearance of Cancer Cells