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Plate Tectonics. Liz LaRosa for use with my 5 th Grade Science Class http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2009 . Earth’s Layers. The Earth's rocky outer crust solidified billions of years ago, soon after the Earth formed.

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Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics

Liz LaRosa for use with my 5th Grade Science Class http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2009


Earth s layers
Earth’s Layers

The Earth's rocky outer crust solidified billions of years ago, soon after the Earth formed.

This crust is not a solid shell; it is broken up into huge, thick plates that drift atop the soft, underlying mantle.


The crust
The Crust

  • Outermost layer

  • 5 – 100 km thick

  • Made of Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum


The mantle
The Mantle

  • Layer of Earth between the crust and the core

  • Contains most of the Earth’s mass

  • Has more magnesium and less aluminum and silicon than the crust

  • Is denser than the crust


The core
The Core

  • Below the mantle and to the center of the Earth

  • Believed to be mostly Iron, smaller amounts of Nickel, almost no Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, or Magnesium



Plate tectonics1
Plate Tectonics

  • Greek – “tektonikos” of a builder

  • Pieces of the lithosphere that move around

  • Each plate has a name

  • Fit together like jigsaw puzzles

  • Float on top of mantle similar to ice cubes in a bowl of water


Continental drift
Continental Drift

Alfred Wegener 1900’s

Continents were once a single land mass that drifted apart.

Fossils of the same plants and animals are found on different continents

Called this supercontinent Pangea, Greek for “all Earth”

245 Million years ago

Split again – Laurasia & Gondwana 180 million years ago

http://members.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/earth/Continents.shtml




Sea floor spreading1
Sea Floor Spreading

  • Mid Ocean Ridges – underwater mountain chains that run through the Earth’s Basins

  • Magma rises to the surface and solidifies and new crust forms

  • Older Crust is pushed

    farther away from the ridge


How plates move
How Plates Move

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/unanswered.html


Different types of boundaries
Different Types of Boundaries

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html


Divergent boundary arabian and african plates
Divergent Boundary – Arabian and African Plates

Arabian Plate

Red Sea

African Plate


Divergent boundary iceland
Divergent Boundary – Iceland

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html


Divergent boundary oceanic
Divergent Boundary - Oceanic

http://www.geology.com


Divergent boundary continental
Divergent Boundary - Continental

http://www.geology.com



Convergent boundary oceanic continental
Convergent Boundary – Oceanic & Continental

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html & http://www.geology.com


Convergent boundary oceanic oceanic
Convergent Boundary – Oceanic & Oceanic

Note – plates are reversed

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html & http://www.geology.com


Convergent boundaries continental
Convergent Boundaries - Continental

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html & http://www.geology.com



Review
Review

  • Name the 3 main layers of the Earth

  • What is a tectonic plate?

  • What was Pangea?

  • What is Sea-Floor spreading?

  • Name the three different types of plate boundaries and one location on Earth for each one


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