WAR
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War

WAR

EZ fer war, I call it murder,-- 
There you hev it plain an' flat; 
I don't want to go no furder 
Than my Testyment fer that.... 
They may talk o' Freedom's airy 
Tell they'er pupple in the face,-- 
It's a grand gret cemetary 
Fer the barthrights of our race; 
They jest want this Californy 
So's to lug new slave-states in 
To abuse ye, an' scorn ye, 
An' to plunder ye like sin. 


by: James Russell Lowell (1819-1891

reprinted from The Early Poems Including the Biglow Papers

James Russell Lowell. New York: A.L. Burt, 1900


49ers to california

‘49ers to CALIFORNIA

Gold discovered on this site in CA in January 1848


49ers to california1

‘49ers to CALIFORNIA

Sites of goldfields in Northern California


49ers to california2

‘49ers to CALIFORNIA

Gold miners came from around the world to get rich...

...most didn’t


49ers to california3

‘49ers to CALIFORNIA

By 1850, California was encouraged to apply for

statehood to help bring about law and order


49ers to california4

‘49ers to CALIFORNIA

  • Problem: 16 FREE states but 15 slave states

  • Imbalance in the Senate

  • Laws against slavery;

  • Southerners will not agree to this


Compromise of 1850

Compromise of 1850

Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, of the “Old Guard” introduced his last great compromise

for his nation


Clay s compromise of 1850

Clay’s Compromise of 1850

California admitted

as FREE state

Popular sovereignty

DC allows slaves BUT slave trade is banned

TX loses land, but gets debts paid


Clay s compromise of 18501

Clay’s Compromise of 1850

...the Southerners got their long wished-for law...

a STRICTfederal FUGITIVE SLAVE Law

All Northerners were requiredby law to help return runaway slaves and cooperate with slave catchers


Compromise of 18501

Compromise of 1850

South Carolina Senator,

John C. Calhoun,

also of the “Old Guard”, strongly opposed California’s admittance and compromise.

He threatened secession.

His last great speech is read by a fellow Southerner.

He died soon after saying,

“The South! The South! What will become of her!


Compromise of 18502

Compromise of 1850

Eloquent “Old Guard”

New Englander, Daniel Webster, promoted the Compromise of 1850 with his last great speech. He was for

Compromise and against legislating over slavery (believing that slavery was unsuited for the West).

“Let us not be pygmies in a case that calls for men.”


Compromise of 18503

Compromise of 1850

This Seventh of March speechturned many Northerners

(like bankers and businessmen) toward compromise,

but

abolitionists and Free-Soilers attacked him as a traitor.


Compromise of 18504

Compromise of 1850

Ardent Quaker abolitionist poet,

John Greenleaf Whittier

wrote about Webster,

“So fallen! So lost! The light withdrawn

Which once he wore!

The glory from his gray hairs gone

For evermore!


Compromise of 18505

Compromise of 1850

One of the “Young Guard”,

NY Senator William Seward was the eloquent speaker for

radical abolitionists.

He was against concession,

believing Free California

should be admitted

into the Union

without “gifts” to the South.


Compromise of 18506

Compromise of 1850

In his argument Seward said, “Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law”…and exclude slavery in obedience to an even“higher law” than the Constitution”.

“Higher Law” Seward influenced President Taylor who also

just wanted CA to become a state

without any other agreement


Compromise of 18507

Compromise of 1850

Young Illinois Senator, Stephen A. Douglas,

takes Henry Clay’s compromise and splits it up into 7 separate laws.

In this manner, it is passed through Congress and becomes federal law.


Compromise of 18508

Compromise of 1850

President Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War , opposed fellow Southerners; He simply wanted California to enter the Union.

Dying in office before the compromise passed actually helped because his successor, Millard Fillmore, helped promote compromise


Fugitive slave law

Fugitive Slave Law

Northerners were furious that slavery had invaded their free states. Many refused to obey. The Underground Railroad became a popular way to protest this law.


Compromise of 18509

Compromise of 1850

Runaway slave, Harriet Tubman became the best known conductor on the Underground RR


Compromise of 185010

Compromise of 1850

Most fugitives followed the North Star to freedom...


Compromise of 185011

Compromise of 1850

...but there were many routes to freedom...


Compromise of 185012

Compromise of 1850

Boston’s Famous Fugitive, Anthony Burns


Compromise of 185013

Compromise of 1850

Boston’s Famous Fugitive, Anthony Burns


Compromise of 185014

Compromise of 1850

Indiana’s famous Underground Railroad family: Levi and Kati Coffin

Over 2,000 slaves found their way to freedom after being sheltered in Coffin’s home: “Grand Central Station”


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