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F ORESTS AND THE K YOTO P ROTOCOL. Carbon Sinks in the CDM: Policy, Opportunities & Challenges. Darren C Goetze Senior Policy Advisor International Affairs Div., Climate Change Bureau. Overview. Environmental potential of sinks project Current status of sinks in the CDM

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f orests and the k yoto p rotocol

FORESTS AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL

Carbon Sinks in the CDM:

Policy, Opportunities & Challenges

Darren C Goetze

Senior Policy Advisor

International Affairs Div., Climate Change Bureau

overview
Overview
  • Environmental potential of sinks project
  • Current status of sinks in the CDM
  • Towards a CDM sinks strategy
  • Case studies
  • Conclusion
potential sinks projects
Potential Sinks Projects
  • Direct reduction of emissions
    • reducing deforestation by protecting forests under threat of conversion to agriculture or pasture,
    • reducing forest degradation by protecting natural forests from the impacts of human activities,
    • substituting biomass energy sources for fossil fuels,
    • slowing/reversing degradation of agricultural soils.
  • Indirect reduction of emissions via sequestration
    • restoring natural forests in deforested/degraded areas,
    • expanding agroforests and plantations.
co benefits of sinks projects
Co-benefits of Sinks Projects
  • Biodiversity
    • Habitat preservation/expansion
  • Desertification
    • Soil moisture conservation
    • Soil stabilization/erosion prevention
  • Socio-economic
    • Sustainable use of non-wood products
    • Economic development
bonn agreement
Bonn Agreement
  • Afforestation and reforestation projects eligible under the CDM
  • Credits limited to 1% of Annex I Party’s base year emissions per year
    • Equivalent to ca. 50 Mt C/yr (total Annex I)
marrakech accord
Marrakech Accord

Relevant elements of the deal include:

  • Prompt start of the CDM
  • Modalities and procedures
  • Simplified modalities and procedures for some small-scale projects by CoP 8
    • “Other project activities that both reduce anthropogenic emissions by sources and that directly emit less than 15 kt CO2/ yr”
missing pieces
Missing Pieces

Still required for operationalizing CDM afforestation and reforestation projects:

  • Definitions and modalities
    • Workshop before SBSTA 16
    • Decision at CoP 9
  • Good practice guidance
    • Part of IPCC work programme
definitions and modalities
Definitions and Modalities
  • Definitions should be consistent with those decided for Article 3 activities
  • Modalities should be guided by the IPCC SR LULUCF project chapter
towards a sinks project strategy
Towards a Sinks Project Strategy

Elements of Success

  • Secure, high-quality carbon credits
    • Risk-management and dilution key
    • Matching credit stream to investor carbon liabilities
  • Improved sustainability of ecosystem services
    • Deliver high co-benefits
  • Recognition of local resource use
    • Meet the need, don’t fight it
  • Contribution to local economic development
    • Sustainable income potentials, local partners
towards a sinks project strategy1
Towards a Sinks Project Strategy

Recommended focus:

  • Portfolio of multi-component projects that deliver high environmental co-benefits and engage local communities
case study nyakach kenya
Case Study – Nyakach, Kenya

Nyakach Region Biomass Enhancement Project

  • Reforestation of ca. marginal semi-arid low-lying plains in Nyakach region with sisal and Prosopis
    • Reduced rate of deforestation and environmental degradation
  • Co-benefits include
    • Soil rehabilitation
    • Quality fodder and cleaner biofuel for cooking and heating
    • Wood, fiber and dyes for local entrepreneurs
    • Poverty alleviation, improved living standard for women
case study colombia
Case Study – Colombia

Andean Biodiversity Corridor Project

  • Reforestation project to build 2 biodiversity corridors by restoring native biomes around existing forest fragments
  • Silvo-pastoril buffers on edges of the corridors
  • Build on ongoing research and conservation in corridors supported by GEF
  • Umbrella Project with heavy local involvement
  • Sequestration of ca. 76 Mt C over 50 year project lifetime
case study colombia1
Case Study – Colombia
  • Co-benefits include
    • Agro-forestry programs for local energy/heat
      • Wood Energy Source protects corridor
    • Silvo-pastoril milk cow management with nitrogen-fixing legumes
      • Provide High Quality Fodder for Cows
      • Coexists with Local Pasture Species
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Eligibility and credits limited, uncertainty remains, sinks still regarded with suspicion
  • 1st CP key: Must pick projects strategically, manage risk carefully and deliver high co-benefits

FOR MORE INFO...

Darren Goetze, Senior Policy Advisor

Environment Canada < darren.goetze@ec.gc.ca >