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F ORESTS AND THE K YOTO P ROTOCOL. Carbon Sinks in the CDM: Policy, Opportunities & Challenges. Darren C Goetze Senior Policy Advisor International Affairs Div., Climate Change Bureau. Overview. Environmental potential of sinks project Current status of sinks in the CDM

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F orests and the k yoto p rotocol


Carbon Sinks in the CDM:

Policy, Opportunities & Challenges

Darren C Goetze

Senior Policy Advisor

International Affairs Div., Climate Change Bureau


  • Environmental potential of sinks project

  • Current status of sinks in the CDM

  • Towards a CDM sinks strategy

  • Case studies

  • Conclusion

Potential sinks projects
Potential Sinks Projects

  • Direct reduction of emissions

    • reducing deforestation by protecting forests under threat of conversion to agriculture or pasture,

    • reducing forest degradation by protecting natural forests from the impacts of human activities,

    • substituting biomass energy sources for fossil fuels,

    • slowing/reversing degradation of agricultural soils.

  • Indirect reduction of emissions via sequestration

    • restoring natural forests in deforested/degraded areas,

    • expanding agroforests and plantations.

Co benefits of sinks projects
Co-benefits of Sinks Projects

  • Biodiversity

    • Habitat preservation/expansion

  • Desertification

    • Soil moisture conservation

    • Soil stabilization/erosion prevention

  • Socio-economic

    • Sustainable use of non-wood products

    • Economic development

Bonn agreement
Bonn Agreement

  • Afforestation and reforestation projects eligible under the CDM

  • Credits limited to 1% of Annex I Party’s base year emissions per year

    • Equivalent to ca. 50 Mt C/yr (total Annex I)

Marrakech accord
Marrakech Accord

Relevant elements of the deal include:

  • Prompt start of the CDM

  • Modalities and procedures

  • Simplified modalities and procedures for some small-scale projects by CoP 8

    • “Other project activities that both reduce anthropogenic emissions by sources and that directly emit less than 15 kt CO2/ yr”

Missing pieces
Missing Pieces

Still required for operationalizing CDM afforestation and reforestation projects:

  • Definitions and modalities

    • Workshop before SBSTA 16

    • Decision at CoP 9

  • Good practice guidance

    • Part of IPCC work programme

Definitions and modalities
Definitions and Modalities

  • Definitions should be consistent with those decided for Article 3 activities

  • Modalities should be guided by the IPCC SR LULUCF project chapter

Towards a sinks project strategy
Towards a Sinks Project Strategy

Elements of Success

  • Secure, high-quality carbon credits

    • Risk-management and dilution key

    • Matching credit stream to investor carbon liabilities

  • Improved sustainability of ecosystem services

    • Deliver high co-benefits

  • Recognition of local resource use

    • Meet the need, don’t fight it

  • Contribution to local economic development

    • Sustainable income potentials, local partners

Towards a sinks project strategy1
Towards a Sinks Project Strategy

Recommended focus:

  • Portfolio of multi-component projects that deliver high environmental co-benefits and engage local communities

Case study nyakach kenya
Case Study – Nyakach, Kenya

Nyakach Region Biomass Enhancement Project

  • Reforestation of ca. marginal semi-arid low-lying plains in Nyakach region with sisal and Prosopis

    • Reduced rate of deforestation and environmental degradation

  • Co-benefits include

    • Soil rehabilitation

    • Quality fodder and cleaner biofuel for cooking and heating

    • Wood, fiber and dyes for local entrepreneurs

    • Poverty alleviation, improved living standard for women

Case study colombia
Case Study – Colombia

Andean Biodiversity Corridor Project

  • Reforestation project to build 2 biodiversity corridors by restoring native biomes around existing forest fragments

  • Silvo-pastoril buffers on edges of the corridors

  • Build on ongoing research and conservation in corridors supported by GEF

  • Umbrella Project with heavy local involvement

  • Sequestration of ca. 76 Mt C over 50 year project lifetime

Case study colombia1
Case Study – Colombia

  • Co-benefits include

    • Agro-forestry programs for local energy/heat

      • Wood Energy Source protects corridor

    • Silvo-pastoril milk cow management with nitrogen-fixing legumes

      • Provide High Quality Fodder for Cows

      • Coexists with Local Pasture Species


  • Eligibility and credits limited, uncertainty remains, sinks still regarded with suspicion

  • 1st CP key: Must pick projects strategically, manage risk carefully and deliver high co-benefits


Darren Goetze, Senior Policy Advisor

Environment Canada < [email protected] >