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Cryptography and Mary Queen of Scots. Alice Yuyen Chang Spring 2004 at Chang Gung University A Lecture Given in Freshman English Courses. Think before you read. What will be the best methods to guarantee the security of classified documents or your love letters?

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Cryptography and Mary Queen of Scots

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Cryptography and Mary Queen of Scots

Alice Yuyen Chang

Spring 2004 at Chang Gung University

A Lecture Given in Freshman English Courses


Think before you read . .

  • What will be the best methods to guarantee the security of classified documents or your love letters?

  • What are the functions of languages?

  • What is the relationship between communication and decipherment?


Essay questions:

  • Please give five examples of the secret communication in ancient times and analyze and compare their advantages and disadvantages.

  • What is the difference between steganography and cryptography? What functions are they expected to achieve? What technology, science, or human knowledge will be required behind both skills?


  • Briefly define the concept of plain text and cipher text. Based on your definitions, please comment on the following statements:

    • 1. Human languages tend to hide the true meanings.

    • 2. There is always secret behind the words.

    • 3. Sometimes, the plain text will convey the most mysterious secret.


  • Which of the following factors will best prompt the breakthroughs in code-breaking: politics, economy, technology, education, religion, or others? Please give examples to back your viewpoints.


Code

  • cipher, cryptograph, symbol

  • canon, charter, codex, constitution, convention, custom, digest, discipline, ethics, etiquette, manners, maxim, method, regulation, rule, system


decode

break, calculate, clear up, compute, count, decipher, estimate, figure, reckon, resolve, solve, unravel

  • analyze, break, break down, cipher, construe, crack, deduce, disentangle, dope out, elucidate, explain, expound, figure out, make out, puzzle out, solve, spell, unfold, unravel, unriddle


http://www.dvnet.com/extra/education/cryptography_history.asp


2 2


To be or not to be!

That’s the answer- - -


Egyptian Hieroglyphs

  • The earliest hieroglyphics date back to 3000 BC, and this form of ornate writing endured for the next three and a half thousand years.

  • the Greek word hieroglyphica means "sacred carvings"


Picture and phonetics

http://www.nku.edu/~anthro/awards.html


Rosetta Stone

  • The Rosetta Stone was used by scholars to decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics using "homology" with the Demotic and Greek languages. Can three-dimensional protein structures be used like the Rosetta Stone to decode the functions of genes identified in the various genome projects?


ROSETTA STONE (replica).Original of black basalt.45" high x 28.5" wide x 11" thick.http://mcclungmuseum.utk.edu/permex/egypt/eg-rose1.jpg


British Museumhttp://users.bigpond.net.au/mbirse/ris/photos/page07.htm

  • A VERY famous stone tablet - The Rosetta Stone. This tablet was discovered by Napoleon during his conquest of Egypt.


Three languages

  • At the top -- 14 lines of hieroglyphs

  • In the center -- 32 lines of demotic (a simpler,cursive, form of hieroglyphic characters whichis much easier to write, and which thereforebecame the popular form of writing)

  • At the bottom -- 54 lines of Greek


http://www.bgst.edu.sg/realia/o17top.jpg


http://www.bgst.edu.sg/realia/o17mid.jpg


The Science of Secrecy/ BBC

  • The correspondence between Mary Queen of Scots and Anthony Babington was encrypted with a substitution cipher.

  • http://www.channel4.com/science/microsites/S/secrecy/page1c.html


Plaintext/ ciphertex

  • The original message is called a plaintext. The disguised message is called a ciphertext.

  • Encryption means any procedure to convert plaintext into ciphertext. Decryption means any procedure to convert ciphertext into plaintext.


http://library.wustl.edu/units/spec/rarebooks/semeiology/arnold3.gifJOHANNES TRITHEMIUS (1462-1516)Polygraphique et Vniverselle Escriture Cabalistique.Paris, Jacques Kerver, 1561.


Title Page from Cryptomenytices Cryptographia There is some remarkable evidence in that mysterious book on Cryptography published on the Continent at Luneburg in 1624, and attributed to Gustavus Selenus, alias Trithemius, alias Man in the Moon.


Giovanni Battista Porta, De Furtivis Literarum Notis (1563), p. 73. A working set of rococo cipher discs was packaged with it. The work was reprinted in 1591, '93, 1602 {x2}, '03, and '06.http://fly.hiwaay.net/~paul/cryptology/portadisc.html


An Example of a Bi-literarie Alphabet.


The Second Cryptographic Shakespeare by Penn Leary

  • http://home.att.net/~mleary/index.htm

  • Non semper ea sunt quae videntur.(Things are not always what they seem).--Phaedrus, A.D. 8

  • Shakespeare is a voice merely; who and what he was that sang, that sings, we know not. --Emerson

  • You would play upon me; you would seem to know my stops; you would pluck out the heart of my mystery... --Shakespeare


A Brief History of Cryptography

  • The use of cryptography is as old as the art of communication. In times of war, Julius Caesar employed a shift cipher to secure his transmissions to his generals:

  • By deriving a cipher text alphabet from the plain text alphabet through the use of a secret key, Caesar was able to transmit sensitive information to his generals securely.


2.

  • The generals would in turn decrypt the cipher text message into plain text form by employing the same secret key.

  • Cryptography became a serious issue during the Second World War as both axis and allied forces employed cryptography to secure national secrets.


versus


The Scottish Heritage

  • She was the quintessential queen: statuesque, regal, dazzlingly beautiful. Her royal birth gave her claim to the thrones of two nations; her marriage to the young French dauphin promised to place a third glorious crown on her noble head.

    • http://www.mcgrorty.com/scottish_heritage.htm


8 December 1542 Mary is born at Linlithgow Palace in West Lothian.

8 February 1587 Mary is executed in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay between the hours of nine and ten in the morning.http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/timeline.htm


Linlithgow Palace


http://go.supereva.it/europamedievale/gallery11/pagine/LinlithgowPalace.htm


http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/moregpix98.html


http://www.nale.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/recent/pictures/linpalace.htmlA view of Linlithgow Palace across the loch.


Portcullis gate, Edinburgh Castle

Mary, Queen of Scots


THE PORTCULLIS GATE

  • http://www.nonvi.com/sm/edin16.html


Source of the following pictures:

http://www.caledoniancastles.co.uk/castles/lothian/edinburgh/rock.htm#port


The Last Letter of Mary, Queen of ScotsQueen of Scotland  8 Feb. 1587

  • http://www.nls.uk/digitallibrary/mqs/trans1.htm


Execution

  • 8 February 1587 Mary is executed in the Great Hall of Fotheringhay between the hours of nine and ten in the morning.


http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/Execution.htm


http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/execution2.htm


Castle of Fotheringhay

  • Her heart and organs were buried deep within the Castle of Fotheringhay but the exact spot was never revealed. The body was then embalmed and incarcerated in a heavy lead coffin which remained unburied in the Castle until 30th July 1587, where it was taken at the dead of night for fear of public protest, to Peterborough Cathedral.


http://www.marie-stuart.co.uk/Castles/Fotheringhay.htm


references

  • http://www.soi.wide.ad.jp/class/20000009/slides/05/index_3.html

  • http://www.dvnet.com/extra/education/cryptography_history.asp

  • Important Events in Computing History

    http://www.rit.edu/~xyg8720/comphistory.html


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