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announcements. Midterms due today! Presentation on Wed 8/21, Laura Kang’s “Compositional Subjects” Justin Rachel Daniel Must email 2pg summary of individual contribution by 6pm Tues night. The Informal Labor of Care. Informal vs formal labor

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  • Midterms due today!

  • Presentation on Wed 8/21, Laura Kang’s “Compositional Subjects”

    • Justin

    • Rachel

    • Daniel

  • Must email 2pg summary of individual contribution by 6pm Tues night

The informal labor of care

The Informal Labor of Care

  • Informal vs formal labor

    • Taxed and monitored by governmental agencies; subject to regulation and accountability

  • Domestic work defined by informality at every level:

    • Hiring practice = social networks & reputations

    • Pay scales & employee/employer duties

    • Agencies = formalizing industry for only certain nannies

    • Terminations, resignations, and severance

    • Maternalismvspersonalism

Cleaning up a dirty business

Cleaning up a dirty business

  • Sotelo’s solution  upgrading not abolition (210)

    • Enforce regulations currently on the books concerning wages and hours rather than solely focus on taxes (216)

    • Strengthen formal employment standards and regulation (241)

    • Educate public about domestic work (241)

    • Do not impose previous forms of labor organizing onto domestic workers (227)

Current campaign – AB 241

Legal victory

Legal victory?

  • YuniMuliyono

    • English-language skills = model minority vs illegal alien (234)

    • Foreign racial hierarchies versus domestic democracy (236-237)

  • Limitations of formal legal victory

    • Selective recognition before the law & persistence of social hierarchies

  • Complexities of race, class, gender & nationality

    • Upper-class women able to leave home

    • Certain racialized women recognized as subjects before the law

Can we reform the system while still recognizing the limits of the system itself?

Big questions

Big Questions

  • How do we pursue extension & recognition of rights while still recognizing the limits of the nation-state?

  • How do we fight for humane working conditions but still recognize the inhumane logic of capitalism?

  • How do we build solidarity with the 2/3 world while remembering we have the privileges of the 1/3?

Birthing a nation

Birthing a nation

Immigration, family, nationalism

The personal is political

The personal is political

  • race & gender  social systems of difference that naturalize and organize power, privilege & marginalization

    • Racial meanings as extending or withholding full status of humanity

    • Gender as performance according to social scripts

  • “sexual identities and categories are never transhistorical, essential, fixed and self-evident but rather are constructed within social relations that change over time and by location” (x)

    • Patriarchal gender norms uphold and are upheld by compulsory heterosexuality

    • Racial difference is linked to sexual aberrance

Institutional identities

Institutional identities

  • Institutions powerfully shape and are shaped by meanings of race, gender, & sex

  • What are institutions?

    • Structures or mechanisms of social order that governs behavior. Examples: (global) capitalism, home, marriage, family

    • Formal organizations of social interaction. Examples: national governments and their individual bureaus

  • Luibheid– what is the relationship between institutions of immigration control andthe formations of race, gender, & sexuality? (See page xxii)

Foucaldian cycles

Foucaldian cycles

Racial, gendered, sexual difference

Institutional management of social difference

Immigration sexuality nation

Immigration, sexuality, nation

  • “Immigration control is not just a powerful symbol of nationhood and people but also a means to literally construct the nation and the people in particular ways” (xviii)

  • Only properly reproducing subjects can be allowed to cross border and participate in nation. Not:

    • the criminal, insane, diseased

    • sexual minorities who do not conform to patriarchal heterosexuality

    • racially undesirable subjects (ex. Chinese Exclusion Act)

  • The border is everywhere (xviii)

Uterine nationalism

Uterine nationalism

  • Gentlemen’s Agreement 1908

    • Changing needs of US capital vs Strong Meiji government

    • Picture brides = exception because of Japanese and US national patriarchies

  • “valorized female sexual norms… involve racial limits” (62)

  • Japanese as perpetual racial other  Sexual yellow peril

    • Threatening resistance to assimilation rather than survival tactics (67)

    • Persisting loyalty to Japan rather than self-autonomy (70)

    • Pathological procreation rather than recognition of immigration controls (72)

Legal limits

Legal limits

  • 1965 Immigration & Nationality Act

    • Finally eliminates racist national quotas

    • Sets universal caps on immigration from Eastern & Western hemispheres

  • 7 categories of preference  profession & family reunification

  • “… the law was intended to have racially discriminatory effects, while seeming to be race neutral. Significantly, racism was to be perpetuated through further enshrining the heteropatriarchal family at the center of immigration policy” (23)

Lyndon B. Johnson signs 1965 INA at Ellis Island

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