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The History of Computers

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The History of Computers

Developments Leading up to the Stored-Program Computer of Today

Designed by Mr. Wilhelmi

- Early humans counted on their fingers – evolution of base 10 numbering system

- 3000 years ago
- First calculating mechanism
- Beads represent digits
- Rods represent places – units, tens, hundreds, and higher multiples of ten

- Invented the Pascaline in 1642
- First mechanical adding machine

- Invented Step Reckoner in 1671
- Could add, subtract, multiply, divide, and evaluate square roots

- Jacquard’sLoom in 1810
- Emphasized three computer concepts
1. Instructions

- used punched cards

2. Simple Program

- series of instructions

3. Automate job

- because of program

- Father of Computers
- Invented Analytical Engine in 1832
- 5 characteristics of modern computer
- Input device – punch cards
- Processor – mill
- Control Unit
- Storage Facility – store
- Output device

- First Computer Programmer
- wrote programs for theAnalytical Engine

- Her notes on the Analytical Engine was used in the future development
of computers

- Invented Tabulating Machine for 1890 Census
- First machine capable of processing statistical information from punched cards

- Worked on Colossuscomputer in 1943
- Used in World War II for cracking German codes(ENIGMA)

- ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator) 1946
- First electronic computer to go into operation

- A moth got caught in the MARK II and shorted out a relay
- Grace crawled in and removed it from inside the computer
- Popularized the term “bug” to signify any system failure
- The term “debugging” signifies solving a computer problem

EDVAC - first electronic computer to use stored-program

“First Draft” – based on

his concepts, all computers

process data by carrying out

four specific activities:

Input data

Store data

Process data

Output data/results

This initiated the modern

computer era.

- Vacuum tubes
- for electronic circuits

- Punched cards
- for secondary memory/storage

- Speed – Milliseconds
- Thousands of operations per second

- Machine and Assembly languages

- Provided the electronic circuits for computer
- 6000 circuits/cubic foot
- Konrad Zuse used it in 1941 instead of electromagnetic relays
- Large and bulky. Generated enormous amounts of heat
- Burned out frequently causing computer to be down for large amounts of time

- Transistors
- electronic circuits

- Magnetic tape
- secondary memory\storage

- Speed – Microseconds
- millions of operations per second

- Programming languages
- COBOL, Fortran, Symbolic

- Replaced vacuum tubes as electronic circuits in computers
- Developed by William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen from Bell Labs in 1947
- Won the Nobel Prize in 1956 as a result

- 100,000 circuits/cubic foot

Comparison of the vacuum tube with the transistor

- Integrated Circuits (IC)
- electronic circuits

- Magnetic tape
- secondary memory\storage

- Speed – Nanoseconds
- Billions of operations per second

- Silicon Chip
- silicon crystal that IC is etched in

- Invented by Jack Kilby of
Texas Instruments in 1959

- 10 million circuits/cubic foot
- Won the Nobel Prize in 2000 as a result

- Personal micro-computer
- Microprocessor
- electronic circuits

- Magnetic disk
- secondary memory\storage

- Speed – picoseconds
- trillions of operations
per second

- trillions of operations
- Virtual memory
- mimics behavior of primary memory

- Invented by Ted Hoff of Intel in 1971
- Very Large Scale Integration (VSLI)
- tens of thousands electronic components on each IC chip

- Over 500 billion circuits/cubic foot

- Invented Apple Macintosh in 1984
- First programmable computer available for personal use
- First computer to use Graphical User Interface

- Artificial Intelligence
- Computer learns from itself

- Natural Language
- Communicate with computer using everyday language

- Parallel Processing
- Ability to process millions of instructions simultaneously

- Speed – gigaseconds
- Quadrillions of operations per second

What will the future hold in the computer industry?