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National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Midwest Research Institute • Battelle • Bechtel. Enzyme Sugar-Ethanol Platform Project. Project Goal.

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enzyme sugar ethanol platform project

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Midwest Research Institute • Battelle • Bechtel

Enzyme Sugar-Ethanol Platform Project

project goal
Project Goal
  • Objective: Develop and demonstrate economical bioethanol technology based on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis
  • Feedstock Constraint: Develop the technology for an abundant biomass resource that can support production of at least 3 billion gallons of ethanol per year
approach
Approach
  • Select corn stover as feedstock
    • Most abundant, concentrated domestic biomass resource
    • Potential to leverage existing corn harvesting and processing (esp. to produce fuel ethanol) infrastructure and “bridge” industrial contacts
  • Utilize low cost enzymes now being developed
    • Genencor International and Novozymes Biotech Inc. are leading enzyme development work through cost-shared subcontracts from the USDOE. Lower cost enzymes are anticipated in 2003-2004.
  • Demonstrate compelling process economics
    • Validate improved process performance and identify potentially attractive commercialization scenarios.
slide4

Project Scope

NREL-led

Development

Industry-led

Commercialization

Prelim.

Studies

Detailed

Investigation

Process

Development

Testing and

Validation

Commercial

Launch

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

Gov. & Univ. & Corp. R&D

Industry-led deployment

Increasing Cost & Industrial Involvement

strategic fit
Strategic Fit
  • The project demonstrates enabling technology for a lignocellulose-based biorefinery
  • The project focuses on the core steps needed to produce sugars, fractionated lignin, and ethanol
  • Industry is focusing on the application of this technology to make new products
external drivers or showstoppers
External Drivers or Showstoppers
  • Price of Oil and Gasoline (Transportation Fuels)
    • Global supply and demand issue
    • Contingent on fuel standards and energy policy
  • Price and Availability of Starch (Grain) Ethanol
    • Existence of renewable fuel standard
    • Markets for starch ethanol co-products
  • Price and Availability of Corn Stover
    • How much canbe removed and what does it cost?
    • What infrastructure needed for collection, storage and delivery?
    • Are there alternative markets that will out compete ethanol?
  • Environmental Regulations and Policies
    • Greenhouse gas mitigation, carbon tax, etc.
simplified process schematic
Simplified Process Schematic

Steam &

Acid

Enzyme

Feed Handling

Pretreatment

Fermentation

Corn Stover

Hydrolyzate

Broth

Recycle Water

Waste Water

Recycle &

Condensate

Solids

S/L Sep

Liquor

Conditioning

Distillation &

StillageTreatment

Steam

Waste Water

Treatment

Waste Water

Waste Water

Syrup

Biogas & Sludge

Ethanol

S/L Sep

Cake

Steam

Utilities

Burner/Boiler

Turbogenerator

Storage

Electricity

relative cost contribution by area
Relative Cost Contribution by Area

Capital Recovery Charge

Raw Materials

Process Electricity

Grid Electricity

Total Plant Electricity

Fixed Costs

33%

Biomass Feedstock

5%

Feed Handling

18%

Pretreatment / Conditioning

SSCF

12%

(after ~10x cost reduction)

9%

Cellulase

Distillation and Solids

10%

Recovery

4%

Wastewater Treatment

4%

Boiler/Turbogenerator

Utilities

4%

Storage

1%

(0.30)

(0.20)

(0.10)

-

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

process economics
Process Economics
  • Production costs dominated by
    • Feedstock
    • Enzymes - cellulases
    • Capital equipment throughout the plant
  • The focus of the project is to work closely with USDOE, ORNL, USDA, and others, to decrease these key cost factors.
key cost reduction strategies
Key Cost Reduction Strategies
  • Minimize feedstock cost
    • Work with ORNL, USDA, and others to reduce the cost of corn stover by developing policies and infrastructure for efficient collection, storage and delivery
  • Minimize enzyme cost
    • Exploit anticipated thermo-stability of lower cost enzymes being developed by Genencor and Novozymes to reduce enzyme and capital costs for process
  • Reduce processing plant capital cost
    • Demonstrate improved integrated process performance
    • Use process engineering techno-economic models to explore potential benefits of co-location and co-products
market goals
Market Goals
  • The project targets achieving a commercial production cost of $1.10 per gallon by 2010
  • This target is based on a combination of technical conversion process performance goals and market considerations
  • The market for ethanol is driven by refinery demand for ethanol as a gasoline blend stock
ethanol value demand curve
Ethanol Value-Demand Curve
  • Oak Ridge National Lab’s linear programming model for a generic oil refinery used to estimate ethanol value as a function of demand (usage)
  • Results quantify how the value of ethanol decreases as more of it is used
slide13

Refiner Ethanol Demand Curve

Reference conditions

Higher ethanol demand scenario

From G. Hadder (ORNL, 1999)

demand curve findings
Demand Curve Findings
  • At $1.10 per gallon, refiners can afford to use 1-5 billion gallons per year of ethanol, depending on the future price of petroleum
  • This estimate does not include the effect of a tax incentives
  • If the tax incentive continues at $0.50 per gallon ethanol, refiners can afford to use 10-11 billion gallons per year
possible process scenario
Possible ProcessScenario

Feedstock Handling

Pretreatment

S/L Separation

Steam &

Acid

Corn Stover

Solids

Liquor

Lime

Enzyme

CO2

Ethanol

Gypsum

Steam

Conditioning

Saccharification

&

Fermentation

Wastewater

Treatment

Distillation &

Ethanol Purification

Burner/Boiler

Turbogenerator

Lignin

Residue

Steam

Electricity

feedstock corn stover
Feedstock – Corn Stover

* Composition is average of 5 stover pretreatment runs at NREL

feedstock corn stover17
Rationale for data:

Feedstock Cost:

Walsh, et.al. (ORNL)

Demonstrated at Harlan, IA

Feedstock Composition:

Averaged stover data (NREL)

Research underway to improve analysis methods and understand major sources of compositional variance

Feedstock – Corn Stover
feedstock corn stover18
Feedstock – Corn Stover

Large Cost Impact

Feedstock Cost Impact

$1.50

$1.48

$50 / BDT

$1.28

$0.65/gal

$35 / BDT

$1.00

$0.83

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal etoh)

$0 / BDT

$0.50

$0.00

Process Case

feedstock handling
Feedstock Handling
  • Brings biomass into facility
  • Prepares biomass for pretreatment
  • Subcontract work to develop less expensive handling systems
pretreatment example
Pretreatment - Example
  • Converts hemicellulose to monomeric sugars
  • Makes cellulose more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis
pretreatment example21
Pretreatment - Example
  • Converts hemicellulose to monomeric sugars
  • Makes cellulose more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis
  • Rationale for Data:
  • Corn stover steam gun expts
  • Hot wash process expts
  • Prior research on hardwood
    • feedstocks
pretreatment example22
Pretreatment - Example

Reactor Solids Cost Impact:

Prehydrolysis Solids Concentration Sensitivity

$1.50

$1.45

$1.40

$1.35

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal)

$1.30

$1.25

$1.20

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

Prehydrolysis Solids Concentration inside Reactor

pretreatment example23
Pretreatment - Example

Xylose Yield Cost Impact:

Xylose Yield Cost Impact

$1.50

$1.50

50% xylose

$0.27/gal

85% xylose

$1.28

$1.23

95% xylose

$1.00

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal etoh)

$0.50

$0.00

Process Case

solid liquid separation
Solid/Liquid Separation
  • Separate pretreated solids from liquor
  • Countercurrent hot water wash increases enzymatic digestibility and solubilizes recoverable lignin
solid liquid separation25
Rationale for Data:

Lower acetylation of corn stover hemicellulose means IX not needed to reduce acetic acid levels

Hot wash process expts

Harris subcontract

Working towards pilot scale demonstration at NREL

Solid/Liquid Separation
  • Separation of pretreatment solids from liquor
  • Countercurrent hot water wash increases enzymatic digestibility and solubilizes recoverable lignin
solid liquid separation26
Solid/Liquid Separation

Cost Impact:

Conditioning Sensitivity

$1.50

$1.45

$1.40

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal

etoh)

$1.35

$0.08 / gal

$1.30

$1.25

$1.20

OL only

IX / OL

Process Case

saccharification fermentation
Saccharification & Fermentation
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
  • Microbial conversion of sugars to ethanol
saccharification fermentation28
Saccharification & Fermentation
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
  • Microbial conversion of sugars to ethanol
  • Rationale for Data:
  • Enzyme Cost is 10x-reduction from Glassner-Hettenhaus parameters
  • 10x-reduction is goal of enzyme subcontracts
  • Hybrid design advantageous for more thermotolerant enzyme system
saccharification fermentation29
Saccharification & Fermentation
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
  • Microbial conversion of sugars to ethanol
saccharification fermentation30
Saccharification & Fermentation
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
  • Microbial conversion of sugars to ethanol
  • Rationale for Data:
  • Previous work based on conversion of hardwood hydrolyzates using Z. mobilis
    • Nutrients
  • Strain improvements
    • 2nd Gen. ethanologen projects at NREL
    • Literature search
saccharification fermentation31
Saccharification & Fermentation
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
  • Microbial conversion of sugars to ethanol
saccharification fermentation32
Saccharification & Fermentation
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose
  • Microbial conversion of sugars to ethanol
  • Rationale for Data:
  • Initial work based on glucose and xylose cofermenting Z. mobilis
  • Improved strains constructed with broader pentose and hexose substrate ranges
    • rDNA yeast
    • Ingram et al. constructs
saccharification fermentation33
Saccharification & Fermentation

Enzyme Cost Impacts:

Enzyme Cost Impact

$2.24

$1.07 / gal

$2.00

$1.01/gal

$.50 / gal

$1.67

$1.50

$0.11 / gal

$1.28

$1.23

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal etoh)

$0.06 / gal

$1.00

$0.50

$0.00

Process Case

saccharification fermentation34
Saccharification & Fermentation

Cost Impacts:

Fermentation Residence Time Cost Impact

$1.50

$1.45

$1.40

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal etoh)

$1.35

$1.32

7 days

$1.30

$0.07/gal

$1.28

3.5 days

$1.25

$1.25

1 day

$1.20

Process Case

saccharification fermentation35
Saccharification & Fermentation

Cost Impacts:

Fermentation Yield Cost Impact

$2.40

70%

$2.10

Minimum Ethanol Selling Price ($/gal)

92%

$1.80

$1.50

95%

$1.33

$1.28

$1.23

$1.20

glucose only

add 85% xylose

add 85% arabinose

all other sugars

85%

saccharification fermentation36
Saccharification & Fermentation

Cost Impact:

Contamination

5%  7% equates to $0.02/gal increase

Nutrient Cost

$0.035/gal

89% CSL, 11% DAP

distillation ethanol purification
Distillation & Ethanol Purification
  • Separation of ethanol and CO2 from “beer”
wastewater treatment
Wastewater Treatment
  • Anaerobic and aerobic treatment
  • Reduce Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • Recycle water
burner boiler turbogenerator
Burner/Boiler/Turbogenerator
  • Biomass boiler generates steam from lignin residue
  • Excess electricity from generator sold to power grid ($0.04/kWh credit)
  • High capital cost area
current status
Current Status
  • Completing Stage 2
    • Compelling scenario identification
      • Technology selection
    • Stage 3 plan development
  • Next step: Gate 3 review
    • Planned for January 2002
conversion related cost reduction opportunities
Conversion-relatedCost Reduction Opportunities
  • Stage 2 technology selection focus
    • Is a better pretreatment technology available?
      • Higher yields, lower capital or operating costs
    • Is a better fermentation strain available?
      • Broader sugar utilization range, higher ethanol yields, better compatibility with enzyme
  • Stage 3 technology improvement focus
    • Are better cellulases available and how do they benefit integrated process economics?
technology selection
Technology Selection
  • Tiered screening approach being applied to ensure best options will be studied in Stage 3
    • 1st screen: Efficacy
    • 2nd screen: Readiness and availability
  • Stage 2 focus:
    • Pretreatment technology
    • Fermentation strain
co location related cost reduction opportunities
Co-location-relatedCost Reduction Opportunities
  • Better feedstock price
    • Proximity to transportation
    • Farmer cooperative
  • Reduce capital cost
    • Utilize existing utilities and processing infrastructure within site constraints
cost reduction strategies cont
Cost Reduction Strategies, cont.
  • Reduce conversion plant capital cost
    • co-locate into a dry mill expansion
    • co-locate with a coal-fired power plant
    • co-locate with both a dry mill and power plant
  • Reduce capital cost through better financing
    • Loan guarantee?
    • City/county/state/federal support or tax benefits?
cost reduction through co products
Cost Reduction through Co-products
  • New process case potentially enables “sugar platform” and “lignin platform” co-products
    • Value-added co-products can increase upside of process commercialization and mitigate overall risk
  • While we can explore the possibilities, development of prospective co-products must be led by industry!
slide46

Potential Bioethanol Co-products

Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate (Xylose)

Process Residue Liquids

Cell Mass, Enzymes (Protein, etc.)

Cellulose Hydrolyzate (Glucose)

Pretreatment

Hemicellulose

Hydrolysis

1o Enzymatic

Cellulose

Hydrolysis

2o Enzymatic

Hydrolysis &

Fermentation

Ethanol

Recovery &

Purification

EtOH

Biomass

Process Residue Solids

Soluble Lignin (Low/Medium MW Phenolics)

Insoluble Lignin (High MW Phenolics)

slide47

Sugar & Lignin Platform Biorefinery

Lignin

Product(s)

Recovered

Lignin

Purification

& Drying of

Lignin Product(s)

Catalyst

Steam, Acid,

Enzyme, etc.)

Renewable Biomass Feedstock

Water

Steam

Unrecovered Lignin

Sugar Product(s)

Sugar-rich Hydrolyzate

Feedstock

Handling

Concentration & Purification of Sugar Product(s)

Biomass

Fractionation

Water

Steam

Recycle

Water

Waste

Water

Unrecovered Sugars

Hydrolyzate

& Residual Solids

Fuel

Ethanol

Ethanol Production

& Recovery

Waste Water

Treatment

Make-up Water

Waste Water

Biogas

& Sludge

Steam

Residual Solids & Syrup

Unrecovered

Lignin

Power

Production

(Turbogenerator)

Electricity

Steam

Generation

Steam

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