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Гетерогенные реакции PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Кафедра биологической химии с курсами медицинской, фармакологической и токсикологической химии. Лекция №4 для студентов 1 курса, обучающихся по специальности 060609.65 - Медицинская кибернетика Лектор: ст.преподаватель Руковец Татьяна Анатольевна Красноярск, 2013. Гетерогенные реакции.

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Гетерогенные реакции

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3850804

,

  • 4 1 , 060609.65 -

  • : .

  • , 2013


3850804

  • ( .. )


3850804

  • (s) (S),

  • .

  • ( )

  • . .


3850804

  • , ( , ) .

    : ()2, Ag,Pb, , Mg, , ..


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( )

  • KtnAnm

    KtnAnm() nKtm+() + mAn-() (1)

()


3850804

  • ==

    = =

m

n

Ktm+

Ann

const t(2)

KtnAnm

t

n

m

Ann

const (3) t

Ktm+

KtnAnm

s


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(s)

  • - ,


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(S)

  • , (1) , .

  • KtnAnm() nKtm+() + mAnn-() (1)

  • (S)


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S

S, .

  • S , 1 .

  • S , / /

  • S = n/V, n ()

    V ()

    : () - 211,5/100

    gCl 0,00019 /100


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S Ks?

  • Ks = [Ktm+]n[Ann-]m = (nS)n(mS)m = nnmmSm+n(4)

  • .. Ks(KtnAnm) , , S


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S Ks

  • (4) ,

    S=

  • gCl, AgBr,

    BaSO4 (AB):

    Ks = 11 11 S2 , S = Ks

m + n

Ks

mmnn

#Ks


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3

3

Ks

1,110-12

22 11

4

  • Ca3(PO4)2? g2 CrO4 ? AgCl ?

  • S (Ca3(PO4)2) = = =

    = 710-7/

  • SAg2CrO4 = = =

    =0,6510 -4/

5

Ks ((Ca3(PO4)2)

5

210 -29

33 22

274


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Ks

1,810-10

2

2

  • S(AgCl) = = = 1,2510-5/

  • , Ag2CrO4 ( ), AgCl 25 ( 5,2 ).

  • CrO42- Cl- Ag+ - AgCl, Ag2CrO4.


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()

  • ( Ag+l- K2CrO4).


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Ks

  • Ks : Ks, ( , )

    , KsAgCl 1,810-10 AgBr 5,310-13 :

    AgI 8,310-17 AgCl > AgBr > AgI


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S()

4 2,710-7 242,610-9 , ., 4 , 24

  • Ks . Ks, .


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Ks ()

  • (.. ) Ks, .

  • = Ks < Ks >Ks


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  • ,

  • > Ks

  • ( )

    , 1 , .


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  • :4 (24)2Ks 2,710-7 1,010-3 25

  • Ks (4) =(2+) (42-)= = 110-3 0,810-3 = 810-72/2 37 , Ks 37 >Ks 25 , (4) Ks(4)


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  • , 4 , . , .

  • , (4). [Ca2+], [42-] .


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  • , (24)2 , ( Ks((24)2)=110-3 3). ((24)2) = 410-113 Ks((24)2)

  • , 4 , (Ks=2,610-9)


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  • , , , .

  • ( )

  • 5(4)3.Ks(5(4)3)=1,6 10-58 ( , )


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()

( = 8,3),

  • 52+ + 342- + 4-5(4)3 + 32

  • ( = 8,3) .

  • 5(4)3

  • .

  • 2+ , 2+ ( ).

,


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  • 32- F-.

  • 5(4)3F.

  • OH- F- .

  • Ca2+ , .


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2+ , .

.


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  • ( < 5)

  • (-)

  • , ()


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  • ( > 7)

    Ca3(PO4)2

    Ca5(PO4)3OH

  • .

Ca5(PO4)3OH + 7+ 324- + 52+ + 2


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  • , .

    CaC2O4H2O

    CaC2O42H2O

  • .


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  • : ( ), .

C10H14O8N2Na22H2O

.


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( )

  • ( ) Cl-, Br-, Ag+

  • ( -SCN, Ag +, Hg2+)

  • , ( Cl-, Br-, I- )


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,

  • Cl- (Br-) Ag+:Cl- + Ag+ AgCl

: AgNO3NaCl

K2CrO4;

CrO42- + 2 Ag+ Ag2CrO4


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  • , , 7 10. , .. + - CrO42-(, , - Cr2O72-) . .

  • l- Br- Fe2+, Zn2+, Al3+, , , .

  • NH3, . . Ag+ [Ag(N3)2]-, Ba2+,Pb2+, rO42


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  • Ag+SCN. : Ag+ + -SCN AgSCN

: AgNO3 KSCN ( )

: NH4Fe(SO4)2


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Cl-

Ag+ Ag+

- SCN

()

  • :

    Fe3+ + n SCN [ Fe(SCN)n ] 3-n(5)

  • Cl- ( ) - NH4Fe(SO4)2

Cl-+ Ag+ AgCl

Ag+ +SCN AgSCN

(5)


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1

z

z

z

C(KSCN) V(KSCN)

C(AgNO3)

  • m (Cl-) = M ( 1 Cl-) n1 (Ag+) = M(1Cl-) C(Ag+)V1

  • V1 = V(AgNO3) V2 (AgNO3)

  • V2 (AgNO3)=


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  • .

  • ,

  • , , , .


3850804

  • ,


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