Extending the Results of the Spitzer-Deep Impact Experiment to Other Comets and Exo-Systems
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Extending the Results of the Spitzer-Deep Impact Experiment to Other Comets and Exo-Systems C.M. Lisse (JHU-Applied Physics Laboratory). (Typical JFC). T1 Ejecta. (Oort Cloud). 16 um Ejecta Imaging. GMC. ISM. Cometary Dust. ~1 um.

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Extending the Results of the Spitzer-Deep Impact Experiment to Other Comets and Exo-Systems

C.M. Lisse (JHU-Applied Physics Laboratory)

(Typical JFC)

T1 Ejecta

(Oort Cloud)

16 um Ejecta Imaging


Poorly understood process of chemical and gravitational aggregation 1 occurring in t 1 myr

GMC to Other Comets and Exo-Systems

ISM

Cometary Dust

~1 um

Poorly Understood Process of Chemical and Gravitational Aggregation #1, occurring in T ≤ 1 Myr

Proto-Solar Nebula

30 um

  • Ices - C, H, O, N

  • Dust - Mg, Si, Fe, S

    • Ca, O, Al, C, …

P.U.P.C.G.A. #2,

occurring in T ≤ 10

Myr

Deep

Impact

~5 km

T<400K,

P < 1kPa

De-aggregation and Ejection of

Sub-surface Fresh(?) PSN Material

Icy Dirtball Comet Nucleus


Spitzer IRS I+45 Min to Other Comets and Exo-Systems

344 Spectral Points

SNR 5 - 30 (2 error bars)

95% C.L. = 1.13

Simultaneous 5- 35 um

> 16 Sharp Features

Best-Fit Linear

Sum



(95% C.L. = 1.13)

Carbonates (Chalk)

(Pre-Post)/Pre = Ejecta/Pre-Impact Coma

PAHs (Soot, Exhaust)

Water

Gas

Amorphous Carbon (Soot)

Water Ice

Sulfides (Fool’s Gold)

Phyllosilicates (Clay)

Pyroxenes (Rock)

Olivines (Rock)

Lisse et al. 2006


Fire, Mud, & Ice : Tempel 1 Contains Xtal Silicates to Other Comets and Exo-Systems, Annealed at T > 1000K + Carbonates & Clays- Formed via Interaction with Water + Ices - Stable Only Below 200 K

Radial Mixing of PSN Material.From inside the orbit of Mercury to outside the orbit of Neptune (turn-off when giant planet cores form)

Crystal

Silicates

Carbonates

Clays

Comets

Parent Body Aqueous Alteration Over 4.5 Gyr

(1) Impulsive Cratering (2) Long Term Water Vapor Processing


SST-IRS P/Tempel 1 Ejecta Spectrum Compared to Comets, Exo-Systems. - -Similar Spectra Due to Presence of Silicates, PAHs, Water, Sulfides. - Differences Due to Relative Compositions, T, Particle Size

Disk Systems HD100546, HD69830, HD113766

Comets Hale-Bopp, SW3, SW1

10 Myr Be9V YSO w/ Disk Cavity

~15 Myr F3/F5 YSO

2-10 Gyr K0V w/ 3 Neptunes


1.47 AU Exo-Systems.

1.5 AU

JFC

Tempel 1

Ejecta

(SST; Lisse

et al. 2006)

JFC SW-3 B

Fragment

(SST; Sitko

et al. 2007)

Amorph

Carbon

PAHs

Carbonates

Sulfides

Pyroxenes

Olivines

2.8 AU

5.7 AU

JFC/Centaur

SW-1 Coma

(SST;

Stansberry

et al. 2005)

Oort Cloud

Hale-Bopp

Coma (ISO;

Crovisier

et al. 1997))

Carbonates

Water Ice

Smectite (clay)

Pyroxenes

Olivines

Olivines

Lisse et al. 2007

“Spectral Fingerprints” of Cometary IR Mineralogy

T1 Spectral Model applied to other systems fits spectra well, extends results to Spitzer, ISO database. We can now dig down below the dominant silicate emissions to find other species.

Hale-Bopp: No Fe-rich olivine. Much more water ice and amorphous carbon. Carbonates, clay.

SW1, SW3 : Much amorphous silicates, Mg-rich olivine. Only water gas for SW3, ice for SW1.


Abundance of cometary water ice vs gas follows water ice stability in solar system
Abundance of Cometary Water Ice vs. Gas Follows Water Ice Stability in Solar System

(water ice stable)

(rapidly ejected

Interior material)

(water ice rapidly

sublimating)


Silicate trends work in progress

Relative amount of crystalline pyroxene increases from SW1, SW3 to Tempel 1. Tempel 1 appears most ”processed”. Hale-Bopp probably formed early, but why SW3 so “fresh”? Deep interior material, or bodies formed in PSN at different times 1- 10(?) Myr and places (4 - 50 AU)?

Silicate Trends?(work in progress)

asteroidal

cometary

Pyroxene content is high

for comets and HD100546,

low for asteroidal debris disks


Mature hd69830

K0V, 12 pc SW3 to Tempel 1.

  • K0V, T = 5400 K, 2 - 10 Gyr old, 12 pc distant

  • 3 Neptune Sized Planets @ 0.08, 0.16, 0.63 AU

Lovis et al. 2006

“Mature” HD69830

B

C

D

Asteroidal Dust Belt

Lisse et al. 2007

T~ 400 K

Super Comet or Asteroid?

Carbonates

PAHs absent

Carbon attenuated

Water Ice

Sulfides absent

Pyrox all crystalline

Olivine Super-rich

Lisse et al. 2007

Beichman et al. 2005

“Near-solar” star. Small, icy, ephemeral dust replenished by ongoing fragmentation. S.S. analogue : ~30 km radius P/D asteroid disrupted @ 1 AU. Karins/Veritas 5-8 Mya?


Comparative IR Mineralogy of Young Stellar Objects SW3 to Tempel 1.

HD100546 : Comet-like. Especially rich in Mg-rich olivine and amorphous pyroxene, water ice. We find the dust to be at ~13 AU, consistent with the inner disk cavity edge of Grady et al. 2005.

HD113766: Mainly has Mg-rich olivine, Fe-rich sulfides, and xtal pyroxene. Little carbonates, clays, PAHs, or amorphous carbon present. Similar to S-type asteroid. NOT an older HD100546.

Amorph

Carbon

HD100546 Disk Herbig Be9V >10 Myr

X

PAHs

HD113766 Disk F3/F5 ~16 Myr

Carbonates

Water Ice

Sulfides

Clays

Sulfides

Pyroxenes

Pyroxenes

Olivines

Olivines

Lisse et al. 2007


Conclusions
Conclusions SW3 to Tempel 1.

  • We have obtained good fits to the 5- 35 um mid-IR spectra of comets HaleBopp, SW3, and SW1 using the Deep-Impact -T1 ejecta model.

  • Silicates, PAHs, water, and sulfides are found in abundance in all studied systems.

  • We find the water content of the comets is gaseous inside the ice line, solid outside it, following the solid ice stability in the solar system.

  • The relative amount of pyroxene decreases as the systems become processed into asteroidal material. In the comets, crystal pyroxene may increase with time of formation.

  • We find emission from HD69830 (K0V, 2-10 Gy, ~0.5 Lsolar) dominated by highly processed dust from disruption of a ~ 30 km P or D-type body.

  • We find emission from HD100546 (Be9V, > 10 My, 22-26 Lsolar) dominated by primitive nebular material at ~13 AU, at the disk inner cavity wall of Grady et al.

  • We find emission from HD113766 (F3/F5, ~15 My, 4.4 Lsolar) dominated by processed dust from disruption of an ~S-type, terrestrial planet forming?) body at 2.2 AU.

    => Disks can be either primordial nebulae (cometary?) or due to stochastic collisions of coherent small bodies (asteroidal?).


Parameters derivable from the di experiment

Parameters Derivable From the DI Experiment SW3 to Tempel 1.

Bulk, Average Composition of Ejected Dust

Obtained from features at set wavelengths

Allows search for comparable species in other systems

Temperature of Dust Components at 1.5 AU

Obtained from short/long wavelength amplitude, feature

No modeling required

Yields location of dust in exo-systems from observed T’s

Particle Size Distribution of Ejected Dust

Obtained from feature/continuum ratio

Unusual narrowly peaked distribution 0.1 - 10 um


Comets SW3 to Tempel 1. r(AU) Water Ice/Gas Silicates Carbonates Clays PAHs Sulfides

Tempel 1 1.51 Ice & O:P = 1 Magnesite & Yes Yes Yes

JFC Gas fxtalo = 0.7 Siderite

(SST, 5-35um) (Impact) fxtalp = 0.9

SW3 1.47 Abundant O:P = 1.6 Some No Yes Yes

JFC Water Gas fxtalo = 0.3 Siderite

(SST, 5-35um) (Near-Sun) fxtalp = 0.6

HaleBopp 2.8 Abundant O:P = 1.3 Abundant Yes Yes Yes

Oort Cloud Water Ice fxtalo = 0.7 Magnesite &

(ISO, 5-40um) (Beyond Ice fxtalp = 0.7 Siderite

Line)

SW1 5.8 Abundant O:P ~ 3.2 Some No Yes? Some

Centaur/JFC Ice (BYI) fxtalo = 0.3 Siderite

(SST, 7-35um) fxtalp = 0.5

Exo-systems r(AU) Water Ice/Gas Silicates Carbonates Clays PAHs Sulfides

HD100546 ~13 AU Abundant O:P = 0.8 Magnesite Yes YES Yes

Be9V, ≥ 10 My (103pc) Ice & Water fxtalo = 1.0

(ISO, 5-40um) fxtalp = 0.3

HD113766 ~1.8 AU Some O:P = 2.4 None ~None No Yes

F3/F5, ~16 My (131pc) Ice fxtalo = 0.7

(SST, 5-35um) fxtalp = 1.0

HD69830 ~1 AU Some O:P = 2.8 ??? None No? No

K0V, 2 - 10 Gy (12pc) Ice fxtal = 0.8

(SST, 7-35um) fxtalp = 0.8


Potential reasons for deep impact stardust differences in carbonate phyllosilicate mineralogy

Wild 2-like Areas? SW3 to Tempel 1.

Impact

Potential Reasons for Deep Impact/STARDUST Differences in Carbonate, Phyllosilicate Mineralogy

Raised

Layers

R.L.

Depression

  • Cometary Diversity - Differences in Formation Time, Location, Evolutionary History (e.g. Tempel 1 rather processed and old, Wild2 rather young)

  • Aqueous Alteration at the one DI Location sampled in depth

  • Modelling Errors in Studyng the DI-Spitzer Data - CaO/CaOH? CH4.C2, C3?

  • Stardust Small # Statistics to Date, Aerogel Obscuration

  • Cold Excavation (DI) vs. Hot Aerogel Capture (STARDUST)

  • Differences in surface vs. interior material - DI burrowed through a surface mantle layer to different material underneath. Carbonates known to be UV photodissociated.


Good Evidence Much of the Original ISM Material Has Been Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).(2) Expected PSN Species from the Equilibrium Condensation Sequence : - Metal (Al, Mg, Ti) Oxides- Olivines- Pyroxenes- Fe/Ni metal- (Na,K) Feldspars- Fe Sulfides- Phylosilicates(after Lewis, 1995)


Atomic Abundances Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).2s error bars for the relative measures are ± 20%. Diamonds = Tempel 1, Triangles = Hale-Bopp, Squares = HD100546.


Tempel 1 Best Fit Model Atom Abundances Are Consistent Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).with Solar for the Refractory Elements

H : C : O : Si : Mg : Fe : S : Ca : Al

0.42 : 0.58 : 3.9 : 1.0 : 0.88 : 0.79 : 0.29 : 0.054 : ≤ 0.085 [x 106]

(H, C, O Depleted, Mostly in Volatiles)

Orgueil CI

Meteorite

Sun


Spitzer IRS I+45 Min Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).

Sulfides

Carbonates

Ejecta Emissivity - Silicate BestFit Model

Amorph

Carbon

Water Ice

Water

Gas

PAHs

Lisse et al. 2006


Carbonates

Wild 2-like Areas? Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).

Impact

Carbonates

  • YSO : 1/2 of all ISO spectra

  • Ceccarelli et al. 2002

  • Chiavassa et al. 2005

Raised

Layers

R.L.

Depression

Non-DI Measures in Comets/IDPs

  • Bregmann et al. 1987 Halley IR

  • Clark et al (1987) Halley in situ

    (PIA, PUMA)

  • Sanford et al. 1984, 1986 IDP chemistry, crystallography

  • Potential Reasons for DI/SD Diff

  • Cometary Diversity

  • Aqueous Alteration at (1) DI Location

  • Modelling Errors - CaO/CaOH?

  • Stardust Small # Statistics

  • Cold Excavation vs. Hot Aerogelç


Tempel 1 bulk ejecta temperatures
Tempel 1 Bulk Ejecta Temperatures Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).

Implications: folivine ~ fpyroxene; Oliv Mg-rich, 70% xtal, Pyrx Fe/Ca-rich, 90% xtal;

8% Phyllosilicates; 5% Carbonates Mg-Fe rich, not Ca; PAHs at 1000 ppm;

S bound in Fe-rich sulfides; H2O ice at 4% level; abundant amorphous C

<-----SD Compliant------>

???


Sst irs p tempel 1 ejecta difference spectrum vs iso sws c hale bopp yso hd100546
SST-IRS P/Tempel 1 Ejecta Reworked(ISM = amorphous silicates, abundant PAHs).Difference Spectrum vs. ISO-SWS C/Hale-Bopp, YSO HD100546

Silicates

YSO with Rich Dusty Disk

Input

PAHs

  • Formed in Giant Planet Region

  • Resides in Outer Solar System Today

Output

Sulfides

Carbonates

  • Formed in Kuiper Belt

  • Resides in Inner Solar System

Sun