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Crisis of Democracy in the West. The Western Democracies A Culture in Conflict Fascism in Italy and Germany. The Western Democracies. Postwar Issues 3 Democracies appeared powerful after WWI Great Britain, France and the United States The Treaty of Versailles was hoped to encourage others

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Crisis of democracy in the west

Crisis of Democracy in the West

The Western Democracies

A Culture in Conflict

Fascism in Italy and Germany


The western democracies
The Western Democracies

  • Postwar Issues

    • 3 Democracies appeared powerful after WWI

      • Great Britain, France and the United States

      • The Treaty of Versailles was hoped to encourage others

  • Underlying Problems

    • Post war Europe face HUGE problems

    • Jobs, Returning Vets and Rebuilding were big issues

    • Many nations owed huge debts and had no money

    • Social unrest and radical ideas were common

    • Germany and other ethnics groups made at outcome of WWI

    • Europe lacked strong leaders

    • An entire generation had been lost


The western democracies1
The Western Democracies

  • Postwar Issues (cont)

    • The Pursuit of Peace

      • Diplomats worked hard to settle issues from WWI

      • By mid-1920’s, borders were set

      • Kellogg-Briand Pact: most nations signed repudiating WAR as an instrument of foreign policy

      • Great powers disarmed (didn’t agree on size)

  • Obstacles to Peace

    • No way to enforce Kellogg-Briand

    • League of Nations was powerless

    • American refused to join League of Nations

    • Ambitious Dictators pushed the limits


The western democracies2
The Western Democracies

  • Recovery and Depression

    • Most European nations returned to peacetime economic production

    • The US emerged as THE economic power

      • A Dangerous Imbalance

        • OVERPRODUCTION: Higher output without markets to sell to caused problems

        • Demand fell, prices fell

        • Consumers benefitted, but producers suffered

        • Workers won higher wages, which raised the price of goods

        • Factories kept producing , despite lower demand for good

    • Crash and Collapse

      • Margin Buying: Brokers called in loans when market began to turn bad

      • Investors sold stock when unable to repay margin

      • The STOCK MARKET CRASH (1929) caused a global collapse

      • US banks stopped loaning money and called in loans to foreign governments

      • Banks failed, millions thrown out of work (DOWNWARD SPIRAL)

  • Global Impact

    • Global economies tied together, all collapsed

    • As Depression lasted, people lost faith in democratic governments to solve the problems devastating most nations

    • Extremists jump on the suffering and offer another way


The western democracies3
The Western Democracies

  • Britain in the Postwar Era

    • Struggle between those supporting socialism and those pushing against communism

    • The Great Depression intensified economic problems

    • Some help from the government provided, millions suffered

    • Revolt in Ireland for home rule – not granted until 1922

      • IRA fought against “North Ireland” still under British control

  • 4 commonwealths granted independence but remain part of Great Britain (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa)

  • France Pursues Security

    • Both a winner and a loser after WWI

    • Relied on “reparation payments” from Germany to rebuild

    • Political instability and the Great Depression brought a struggle for power (lack of strong leadership)

    • Mistrust of Germans caused French to build up defenses along the border between the two countries “The Maginot Line”


  • The western democracies4
    The Western Democracies

    • Prosperity and Depression in the US

      • US stayed out of the League of Nations and isolated itself

      • “RED SCARE” – growing fear of communism caused gov’t in US to act against those who favored it.

      • Anti-immigration acts severely limited immigration

      • 1920’s were either BOOM or BUST

        • MIDDLE CLASS will emerge during BOOM years

        • The STOCK MARKET CRASH caused the Great Depression

      • US Economy goes into tail spin

        • Millions out of work, homeless, hungry

        • Gov’t did little to intervene

      • FDRoosevelt’s “NEW DEAL”

        • The Gov’t took an active role in relieving the problems of the Great Depression

        • Jobs, Businesses, Banks got help

        • Stock Market, businesses were regulated

        • Social Security passed

        • Actions DID NOT end Great Depression but helped many survive it


    Quick review
    QUICK REVIEW

    • Explain what each of the following were:

      • Kellogg Briand Pact

      • Maginot Line

      • New Deal

    • Define the following:

      • Disarmament

      • Overproduction

      • Margin Buying

      • General Strike

    • Answer the questions:

      • What steps did the major powers take to protect the peace?

      • How did the 2 highlighted words above contribute to the Great Depression?

      • How did the Great Depression affect political developments in the US?


    Fascism in italy
    Fascism in Italy

    • Rise of Mussolini

      • A Leader Emerges

        • Post WWI problems allowed a new leader to emerge

        • Mussolini promised a stronger Italy, the people believed

    • Seizing Power

      • “Black Shirts” – enforcers who eliminated opposition

      • Used intimidation and fear to quiet other groups

      • By marching on Rome, Mussolini intimidated King into appointing him Prime Minister

      • Mussolini became the leader without firing a shot

  • Mussolini’s Italy (“Il Duce”)

    • Dictatorship upheld by terror

    • Critics thrown in jail, forced into exile or executed

    • Secret police and propaganda propped up the regime


  • Fascism in italy1
    Fascism in Italy

    • Economic Policy

      • Economy brought under state control

      • Production did increase but at the cost of the workers

  • Mussolini’s Italy (cont)

    • Social Policy

      • The individual was unimportant

      • Men were urged to be “ruthless warriors for Italy”

      • Women were sent home and encouraged to “win the battle of motherhood.” Were given medal for 14 or more children

      • Youth groups taught them to obey strict discipline


  • What is fascism
    WHAT IS FASCISM??

    AN AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENT (many forms)

    *glorify action, violence, discipline and blind loyalty to the state

    *believed democracy led to corruption and weakness

    * Militarism, Suppression of Opposition, Ultranationalism, &

    Aggressive Foreign Policy are markers of FASCISM

    • Compared to Communism

      • Sworn enemies of socialists and communists

      • Instead of good of all people, press for power of the state

      • Supported by business, wealthy, not workers

  • Totalitarian Rule

    • Single party rule * State control of the economy

    • Use of police spies/terror * Strict censorship of media

    • Use of schools to indoctrinate

    • Unquestioning obedience to a single leader

  • Appeal

    • Order restored to country (political and economic)

    • Pride and power of nationalism


  • Quick review1
    QUICK REVIEW

    • Who was “Il Duce”? The Black Shirts?

    • What major problems did Italy face after WWI?

    • How did these problems help Mussolini gain power?

    • Describe the goals (economic & social) of Mussolini and the steps he took to achieve each goal.

    • What is FASCISM? What values does it promote?

    • How is Fascism similar to and different from communism?


    Hitler and the nazi s
    Hitler and the Nazi’s

    • The Weimer Republic

      • Struggles of the Republic

        • Post WWI government a republic with elected officials

        • Germany faced many problems, mostly financial

        • Radicals (socialist, communist, fascist) were active

        • With no strong leaders, there was plenty of blame to share

        • Many Germans blamed Jews for their problems

    • Inflation

      • Post war inflation made German economy weak

      • German government printed money to try to fix problem

      • Money becomes worthless, salaries did not keep pace

  • Recovery and Collapse

    • With help from west, government did slow inflation

    • Reparation payments reduced to try to help German econ.

    • Germany turns to charismatic leader, Hitler, to bring Germany back


  • Hitler and the nazi s1
    Hitler and the Nazi’s

    • Adolf Hitler (born in Austria)

      • Early Rise

        • Fought in German army, was angry how war ended

        • Joined a small political group and became its leader

        • Used “stormtroopers” to battle in the streets with enemies

    • Mein Kampf

      • Imprisoned after an attempted overthrow of the government

      • Wrote “Mein Kampf” which outlined his plan for Germany

      • “Master Race” “Blaming the Jews”

      • Urged Germans to unite and bring Germany back to power

      • Germany needed living space, Aryans should rule

  • The Road to Power

    • Hitler released from prison, NAZI’s began gaining power

    • The Great Depression enabled NAZI’s to be elected/power

    • Hitler appoints Chancellor, within a year he controlled Germany


  • Hitler and the nazi s2
    Hitler and the Nazi’s

    • The Third Reich

      • Hitler will reject the Treaty of Versailles and pressed for a “Third Reich” or third empire

      • TOTALITARIAN STATE: To achieve his goal, Hitler needed total control (gov’t, religion, economy, education)

        • Few worried about the power the government was using, they were just happy Germany was becoming power again

        • The Gestapo (SS) rooted out any and all opposition

      • ECONOMIC POLICY: To grow, people put to work

        • Public works used to rebuild the MILITARY

        • Few objected when government took over most of economy because their standard of living was improving

      • SOCIAL POLICY:

        • Indoctrinated youth (Hitler Youth)

        • Women “rewarded” for having Aryan children

        • Jewish people targeted


    Purging german culture
    Purging German Culture

    • The Arts

      • Modern music and art denounced

      • Only works that glorified Germany allowed (Wagner)

  • Nazism and the Churches

    • Replaced religion with his racial creed

    • Catholic Schools and Churches closed

    • Some clergy spoke up, and were punished

  • Campaign Against the Jews

    • Hitler was a fanatical antisemite

    • Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews

    • Nazis beat and robbed Jews openly

    • KRISTALLNACHT: Night of the Broken Glass

      • World reaction strongly against German action but Hitler didn’t budge

      • In the years that followed, Concentration Camps were used to exterminate over 6 million Jews “FINAL SOLUTION”


  • Steps taken towards the final solution
    Steps taken towards the “Final Solution”

    • “Protective Custody” Rules

    • The Enabling Act (1933)

    • Nazi Boycott of Jewish Stores (1933)

    • Closed certain professions from Jewish workers

    • Banning Jewish children from German schools

    • “Retirement” of non-Aryan workers

      • Banned Jewish workers from government

    • Nazi work camps

    • Gestapo/SS

    • Night of a Thousand Knives (1934)

    • Expelled Jewish teachers from Universities and Schools

    • Book Burnings

    • Use of Media – Antisemetic

    • Nuremburg Laws (1935)

    • Jewish names – must add jewish middle name to ID cards

    • Kristallnacht (1939)


    • “The Nazis came first for the Communists. But I wasn’t a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up. . . Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up.

      Then they came for me. By that time, there was no one left to speak up.”

      Martin Niemoller, Time Mag.


    Culture in conflict
    Culture in Conflict a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up. . . Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up.

    • New Views of the Universe

      • Radioactivity – began tinkering with atomic matter

      • Relativity – Einstein questioned space/time (questioned everything)

      • Probing the Mind –Freud’s subconscious mind drives behavior

    • Modern Art & Architecture

      • Abstract – Picasso

      • Surrealism – Dali

      • Architecture – blended science & technology (glass & steel)

    • A Changing Society

      • Jazz – blend of western harmonies with African rhythms

      • Rebellion – 20’s flapper, women looked outside home

      • Social Classes – WWI had changed the class system


    Need to knows
    Need to Knows a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up. . . Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up.

    • Section One

      • Efforts to maintain peace

      • Things that contributed to the Great Depression

    • Section Two

      • Changes in Culture

    • Section Three

      • Mussolini

        • Goals, Actions taken to meet goals

        • Fascism

    • Section Four

      • Hitler

        • Weimar Republic

        • Rise to Power

        • 3rd Reich

        • Purging German Culture

        • Campaign against the Jews


    Ch 17 essays
    Ch 17 Essays a Communist, so I didn’t speak up. Then they came for the Jews, but I wasn’t a Jew so I didn’t speak up. . . Then they came for the Catholics, but I was a Protestant so I didn’t speak up.

    • Compare and Contrast fascism with communism.

    • Explain the economic conditions in Europe that made it possible for leaders like Mussolini and Hitler and their fascist governments to rise to power.

    • Hitler and Mussolini both used ruthless campaigns against their opposition. Why do you think dictators need to find a scapegoat for their nation’s problems?

    • EXTRA CREDIT:

      • Cover Book +5

      • Answer the following:

      • Name 3 specific examples of methods used by the Nazi’s to deprive Jewish Germans’ rights. Why did the Jewish people and German people accept these?


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