Social effects of the media. Media and violence. Most researchers agree that there is an increase in viewer aggression as a result of exposure to violent content Aggressive cues theory S-R learning theory Social cognitive theory Observational learning Information processing theory.
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Subjects in the experimental group were less likely to provide reward and more likely to inflict aggression (electric shock) on a fellow subject.
1) the attractiveness of the perpetrator;
2) the attractiveness of the victim;
3) whether the violence is justified;
4) the presence of weapons;
5) the extent and graphic quality of the violence;
6) the punishment and rewards from the violence;
7) pain/harm cues; and
“There can no longer be any doubt that heavy exposure to televised violence is one of the causes of aggressive behavior, crime, and violence in society. The evidence comes from both the laboratory and real-life studies. Television violence affects youngsters of all ages, of both genders, at all socio-economic levels and all levels of intelligence. The effect is not limited to children who are already disposed to being aggressive and is not restricted to this country" (Eron 1992, p. 1).
The results are quite surprising,” Messner wrote in his understated conclusion. “For each measure of violent crime, the estimate for the level of exposure to television violence is negative.. In other words, [metropolitan areas] in which large audiences are attracted to violent television programming tend to exhibit low rates of violent crime.”
“[T]he amount of television watched at the initial time of testing by the children of Unitel and Multitel did not significantly predict the amount of aggression seen two years later (although aggression assessed in the follow up period was predicted by television viewing assessed at the same time).”
The player takes the role of the aggressor and is rewarded for success in killing, etc.