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Single stream recycling: How do they sort this mess out?. Lots of ingenuity…and knowledge of physical and chemical properties!. Separation of Mixtures. Mixtures may be separated by many different techniques based on differing physical and/or chemical properties. S eparation challenges.

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Single stream recycling:

How do they sort this mess out?

Lots of ingenuity…and knowledge of physical and chemical properties!


Separation of mixtures

Separation of Mixtures

Mixtures may be separated by many different techniques based on differing physical and/or chemical properties


S eparation challenges
Separation challenges

  • Frack water cleanup


Sorting
Sorting

Simply picking apart the different components:

Recycling


Sieving
Sieving

Use screens to sort by size:

Sifting flour

or gold nuggets

or soil


Filtering
Filtering

Particles separated form liquid or gas:

Coffee,

Furnace,

Lab filter setup with funnel


Decanting
Decanting

Pouring liquid off of settled mixture:

Wine from sediment

Water in water treatment plant


Magnetism
Magnetism

Iron from aluminum, plastic, and paper

at recycling plant

Cow magnets!


Density
Density

Different types of plastic at recycling plant

Oil on water


Dissolving
Dissolving

If one substance dissolves and another doesn’t

Salt and sand…salt dissolves in water…sand doesn’t…sand settles

Tea flavor from tea leaves


Centrifugation
Centrifugation

Spinning to pull heavier part of mixture to bottom

Blood cells are separated

from serum

The spin cycle in the washer removes water from clothes


Distillation
Distillation

Differences in boiling points can be used to separate liquids

(differences in freezing and sublimation points may also be used )

Alcohol in stills

Oil refineries


Chromatography
Chromatography

“chroma” meaning color,

technique was first used for dyes

A moving phase carries sample along over or through a stationary phase.

Components are separated because they have different attractions for the phases so some move faster than others.

Paper chromatography to separate ink pigments

Many variations for many different mixtures


Evaporation
Evaporation

Remove a liquid from

a solid

Sea salt isolated by evaporating sea water in shallow ponds

Solids may also be purified by recrystallization


Shaking
Shaking

Motion… a dog shaking to remove water 

Gravity/density… gentle shaking causes dense items to sink and less dense to rise


Almost any difference in physical properties can be used to separate mixtures physically Differences in chemical properties can also be used to separate mixtures chemically. For example, oil floats on water (physical difference in density) and burns, but water does not (chemical property of flammability)


What s going on here physical chemical
What’s going on here?Physical?Chemical?


Separation techniques

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES

are limited only by people’s (or wizard’s ingenuity!)


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