Grammar
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GRAMMAR. BASIC OVERVIEW & TIPS. FRAGMENTS. What is a fragment? An incomplete sentence which does not contain a main clause. What constitutes a complete sentence? Verb: express action or links information to the subject. Subject: who or what is doing the action.

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GRAMMAR

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Grammar

GRAMMAR

BASIC OVERVIEW & TIPS


Fragments

FRAGMENTS

  • What is a fragment?

    • An incomplete sentence which does not contain a main clause.

  • What constitutes a complete sentence?

    • Verb: express action or links information to the subject.

    • Subject: who or what is doing the action.

    • Complete thought: Verb + Subject = Complete Thought

  • Tips:

    • Find the verb:

      • Correct: The fans shouted during the game.

      • Incorrect: The fans shouting during the game.

    • Find the subject:

      • Correct: The opposing team was annoyed.

      • Incorrect: The opposing team was annoyed. And the next day was irritable.

    • Find the complete thought:

      • Correct: When the students took the exam, they felt prepared.

      • Incorrect: When the students took the exam. (Don’t leave the reader hanging with an incomplete thought).


  • Run on sentences

    Run-On Sentences

    • What is a run-on sentence?

      • Consists of two or more main clauses that run together without proper punctuation.

    • Examples:

      • Incorrect: The student showed us his book someone gave it to him.

      • Correct: The student showed us his book. Someone gave it to him.

      • It is important to break up your main points for the reader, so as not to lose the overall meaning.


    Shifts

    Shifts

    • Avoid unnecessary shifts in tone, voice, mood, person.

    • Maintain the same tense:

      • Incorrect: The man caught the ball and then throws it to the catcher for the out.

      • Correct: The man caught the ball and then threw it to the catcher for the out.

      • Don’t shift from past to present tense.


    Shifts continued

    Shifts Continued

    • Voice: When a sentence contains two or more verbs, both should maintain the same voice (active or passive).

      • Incorrect: When the boy turned on the radio, static was heard.

      • Correct: When the boy turned on the radio, he heard static.


    Parallelism

    Parallelism

    • Parallel structure means using the same pattern or words to demonstrate two or more ideas have the same level of importance.

      • Incorrect: Tim likes reading, swimming, and to spend time with friends.

      • Correct: Tim likes reading, swimming, and spending time with friends.

      • Incorrect: The students were told that they should read the textbook, that they should study for the exam, and to do some practice study questions.

      • Correct: The students were told they should read the textbook, study for the exam, and complete some study questions.


    Mixed constructions

    Mixed Constructions

    • What is a Mixed Construction?

      • A sentence which starts with one grammatical form and ends with another.

    • Examples:

      • Incorrect: For most psychology students who take the licensure exam cannot understand test construction.

      • Correct: For most psychology students who take the licensure exam, test construction is difficult to understand.

      • Tip: Simple steps like careful proofreading can help eliminate aforementioned errors.


    Thesis statements

    THESIS STATEMENTS

    • First, determine the type of paper you are writing (ex. analytical, expository, argumentative).

    • Next, the thesis statement should be very specific and supported by clear evidence.

      • The thesis statement is typically located at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

    • Lastly, you may need to revise your thesis statement as the main ideas of your paper unfold.

      • Remember, it is okay to be creative and to think ‘outside of the box’. 


    Final thoughts

    FINAL THOUGHTS

    • Remember, with issues like Grammar, practice makes perfect.

    • If you have any questions along the way, please don’t hesitate to reach out to the course instructor.

    • Good luck this week with the course exercises.


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