Sexual and Gender Identity & Sexual and Gender Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Sexual and gender identity sexual and gender disorders
1 / 38

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Sexual and Gender Identity & Sexual and Gender Disorders. Main Ideas. What is gender identity? How does gender identity develop? Theories of gender development. Important Vocabulary. Sex - Male/female-based upon chromosomes (xx or xy)

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Sexual and Gender Identity & Sexual and Gender Disorders

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Sexual and gender identity sexual and gender disorders

Sexual and Gender Identity& Sexual and Gender Disorders

Main ideas

Main Ideas

  • What is gender identity?

  • How does gender identity develop?

  • Theories of gender development.

Important vocabulary

Important Vocabulary

  • Sex- Male/female-based upon chromosomes (xx or xy)

  • Gender- Cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity.

  • Gender Identity- a person’s psychological sense of being male or female.

  • Sexual Orientation- a person's emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction to individuals of a particular sex(not a preference)

    • I prefer pizza & boys to chocolate & girls???

Sexual and gender identity sexual and gender disorders




Sexual orientation

Sexual Orientation

Biological correlates of sexual orientation

Biological correlates of sexual orientation

  • Evidence strongest in males

    • Gays & lesbians fall in between straight males & females

  • 1. Brain differences

    • One hypothalamic cell cluster larger in straight males than females and gay males

    • Anterior commissure is larger in gay males than females or straight males

    • Gay males hypothalamus reacts the same as females to smell of sex related hormones

Biological correlates of sexual orientation contd

Biological correlates of sexual orientation (contd.)

  • 2. Genetic Influences

    • Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than fraternal twins

    • Sexual orientation in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated

  • 3. Pre-hormonal Influences

    • Altered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans & other animals

    • Males with several older brothers more likely to be homosexual

  • These three differences/influences may contribute to observable gay-straight differences in…

    • Spatial abilityFingerprint ridge counts

    • HandednessOccupational preferences

    • Relative finger lengthGender nonconformity, etc.

Important vocabulary1

Important Vocabulary

  • Gender Roles- behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits designated as masculine/feminine.

  • Gender Stereotypes- oversimplified beliefs about male/female behavior

  • Gender Schema- cluster of physical qualities, behaviors, and personality traits associated w/one sex.

  • Modeling- Social learning through observation and imitation of others. (Bandura’s Bobo doll)

Gender roles

Gender Roles

Gender stereotypes

Gender Stereotypes

Development of gender identity bee 1998

Development of Gender Identity (Bee 1998)

  • Gender identity: 1-3 yrs

  • Gender stability: 3 - 4 yrs

  • Gender constancy: 5 - 6 yrs

Gender development theories

Gender Development Theories

Gender schema theory

Gender Schema Theory

  • Links cognitive development with social learning theory in the sense that schemas are socialisedcognitive networks of sex & gender roles

  • People with high gender schemas are more prone to stereotypic perception & behaviour

  • High schemas facilitate the creation of cognitive heuristics (gender stereotypes & gender values)

Social learning theory

Social Learning Theory

  • Almost from birth children are treated in gender specific ways (e.g. birthday cards, toys, & dress)

  • Parents & society reinforce gender specific behaviours & attitudes

  • Boys and girls imitate males & females respectively

Social learning theory1

Social Learning Theory

Sexual and gender identity sexual and gender disorders

Identity constructed theory

Identity Constructed Theory

Bee (1998) suggests 3 stages:

  • This theory emphasises the individual’s sense of commitment to a gender category.

  • The gender category may conflict with social norms (McManus 1999) - may lead to gender dysphoria

Enculturated lens theory

Enculturated-Lens Theory

  • Development of gender identity is embedded in socio-historical context of each culture

  • Culture operates as lens through which gender identity & gender roles are defined & passed on as memes of behaviour

    • Memes-A unit of cultural information, such as a cultural practice or idea, that is transmitted verbally or by repeated action from one mind to another

  • Androgyny is the socialised freedom to identify with male or female roles (Bem 1993).

Enculturated lens theory1

Enculturated-Lens Theory

Biological theory

Biological Theory

  • Biologists argue that males with Klinefelter’s syndrome (males with extra x=xxy) & females with Turner’s syndrome (females with a damaged/missing x) may have a very different gender identity

  • Intersexed infants (born with both male & female genitals) may have to decide which gender category they belong

    • Hermaphrodites


Biological theory contd

Biological Theory contd.

  • Biological characteristics may partly explain gender differences

  • Hormonal activities tend to influence mind and body (e.g. aggression & emotionality)

  • Estrogen (associated with xx) may be a protective hormone associated with longevity

  • Estrogen may also be associated with the slow processing of alcohol & quicker intoxication

Gender identity disorder

Gender Identity Disorder

  • Gender Dysmorphic - those unhappy with their anatomical sex who wish to be of the opposite sex

  • A male with GID experiences his sexual interest in men as a conventional heterosexual orientation

    • Doesn’t consider himself homosexual, instead, a female trapped in a man’s body

  • Biological studies (e.g., hormones, chromosomal abnormalities) have been inconclusive

  • In children with GID, parents are more accepting of their cross-gender behavior

Gender dysmorphic

Gender dysmorphic

The paraphilias unusual sexual fantasies urges or behaviors

The Paraphilias (unusual sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors)

  • Fetishism - reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal

  • Transvestic Fetishism - a man who is aroused by dressing in women’s clothing, although he still regards himself as a man (usually heterosexual)

  • Pedophilia - adults, usually men, who derive sexual gratification exclusively through physical and often sexual contact with prepubertal children

    • 95% of known Pedophiles are heterosexual

  • Voyeurism- arousal from observing an unsuspecting person who is disrobing, naked, or engaged in sexual activity



Transvestic fetishism

Transvestic Fetishism



The paraphilias unusual sexual fantasies urges or behaviors1

The Paraphilias (unusual sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors)

  • Exhibitionism-sexual arousal by exposing one’s genitals to shocked strangers.

  • Frotteurism- sexual arousal from touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person (crowds, bus, subway car, etc.)

  • Sexual Sadism- arousal from intentionally inflicting psychological or physical suffering on another person.

  • Sexual Masochism- arousal in response to being humiliated, beaten, bound, or made to suffer.

    • BDSM-bondage, domination, sado-masochism





Sexual sadism

Sexual Sadism

Sexual masochism

Sexual Masochism

Pop culture related

Pop culture related

  • Login