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NSC Text. Chapter 4 - Anthropometry & Workplace Stressors. Anthropometry. Measuring the human Height, breadth, depth & distance straight line measurements Curvatures & circumferences. Anthropometry. “Average worker” No worker is average in every physical dimension

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Nsc text

NSC Text

Chapter 4 -

Anthropometry & Workplace

Stressors

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4


Anthropometry

Anthropometry

  • Measuring the human

  • Height, breadth, depth & distance

  • straight line measurements

  • Curvatures & circumferences

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Anthropometry1

Anthropometry

  • “Average worker”

  • No worker is average in every physical dimension

  • Workers in separate workplaces are likely different

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Anthropometry2

Anthropometry

  • Workplaces designed to accommodate 90% of population, leave out who?

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Anthropometry3

Anthropometry

  • Much of the available data (tables 4-1 & 4-2) is adapted from US military

  • Such data can help in designing workstations & job tasks

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Military anthropometric data

Military Anthropometric Data

  • Biased toward younger workers

  • Close correlation to civilians except for hgt/wgt of females

  • limited data in figs 4-1 & 4-2

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Anthropometry workstations

Anthropometry - Workstations

  • Should accommodate varying sizes & reaches

  • Adjustability is key

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Stressors

Stressors

  • Stress results when outside forces exceed person’s tolerance

  • Results in bodily/mental tension

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Stressors1

Stressors

  • Sources of stress

    • Physiological

    • Biomechanical

    • Psychological

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Fatigue

Fatigue

  • No precise definition

  • Fatigue refers to

    • General feelings of tiredness

    • Reduction in work output

    • Physiological conditions resulting from continued work activity

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Manifestations of fatigue

Manifestations of Fatigue

  • Muscular soreness

  • Aches

  • Sleepiness

  • Mental confusion

  • Muscular tension

  • General weariness

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Fatigue1

Fatigue

  • Fatigue can result from physical or mental stressors

  • Mental Fatigue

    • Tiredness that occurs from mental rather than physical work

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Physiological stressors

Physiological Stressors

  • Kinetic stress results when body is subjected to rapid accelerations

  • One example is vehicular maneuvers

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Rapid accelerations

Rapid Accelerations

  • Blood flow changes & may cause:

    • Loss peripheral vision

    • Illusions of motion

    • Total loss of vision

    • Loss of fine motor control

    • Unconsciousness

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Vibrations acoustic noise may be considered together because they are both mechanical oscillations

Vibrations & acoustic noise may be considered together because they are both mechanical oscillations

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Both may interfere with other sensory functions disrupt motor coordination actual feedback

Both may interfere with other sensory functions & disrupt motor coordination & actual feedback

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Vibrations noise

Vibrations & Noise

  • Persistent noise induces anxiety & irritation

  • Severe V&N may interfere with internal organs & CNS

    • Discomfort

    • Disability

    • Death

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Other types of physiological stressors

Other Types Of Physiological Stressors

  • Thermal - heat stroke

  • Atmospheric - decomp sick, anoxia

  • Chemical - inhalation/ingestion

  • Radiation - symptoms range from mild to death

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Other types of physiological stressors1

Other Types Of Physiological Stressors

Physical work overload - extreme muscular exertion affects coordination & strength can lead to muscle spasm or collapse

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Other types of physiological stressors2

Other Types Of Physiological Stressors

  • Glare

    • annoyance,

    • discomfort

    • visual problem

  • Sleep deprivation - effects performance

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Sleep deprivation

Sleep Deprivation

  • Can Adversely affect decision making process, may result in:

    • weariness

    • decreased strength

    • irritation

    • poor vision

    • hallucinations

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Psychological stressors

Psychological Stressors

  • Psychological Stressors may cause mental stress

  • Because tension may result in physiological problems...

  • may be unable to differentiate between physiological & psychological stressors

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Psychological stressors1

Psychological Stressors

  • Ergonomists do not attempt to eliminate all sources of stress

  • Not all stress is disruptive

  • Limited amounts of stress serve to motivate workers

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Psychological stressors2

Psychological Stressors

  • Too much concern or anxiety may cause operator to spend too much time focusing on selected displays & neglect other duties

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Monotony

Monotony

  • Monotony results from inactivity, boredom, repetitive tasks

  • Mind dulling effects of monotony can seriously degrade performance

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Monotony1

Monotony

  • Uneventful vigilance tasks are examples tasks that produce stress via monotony

  • Closely aligned with monotony is sensory deprivation

  • Occurs when person is isolated from any perceptual input

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Excessive task speed load

Excessive Task Speed/Load

  • …requirements can cause psychological & physical stress

  • This stress is associated with concern that task be completed successfully within time allotted

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Circadian rhythm

Circadian Rhythm

  • 24 hr cycle of night & day

  • Basis for our regulation of eating sleeping, working, socializing

  • Disruptions can serve as both psychological & physiological stressors

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Circadian rhythm1

Circadian Rhythm

  • Disruptions (changes in work shift) can result in autonomic nervous system changes & neuro endocrine changes that are stressful

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Stress may also be the result of worker s life situation external to the work environment

Stress may also be the result of worker’s “life situation” external to the work environment

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NSC Text

End Of Chapter 4

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