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NSC Text. Chapter 4 - Anthropometry & Workplace Stressors. Anthropometry. Measuring the human Height, breadth, depth & distance straight line measurements Curvatures & circumferences. Anthropometry. “Average worker” No worker is average in every physical dimension

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nsc text
NSC Text

Chapter 4 -

Anthropometry & Workplace

Stressors

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

anthropometry
Anthropometry
  • Measuring the human
  • Height, breadth, depth & distance
  • straight line measurements
  • Curvatures & circumferences

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

anthropometry1
Anthropometry
  • “Average worker”
  • No worker is average in every physical dimension
  • Workers in separate workplaces are likely different

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

anthropometry2
Anthropometry
  • Workplaces designed to accommodate 90% of population, leave out who?

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

anthropometry3
Anthropometry
  • Much of the available data (tables 4-1 & 4-2) is adapted from US military
  • Such data can help in designing workstations & job tasks

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

military anthropometric data
Military Anthropometric Data
  • Biased toward younger workers
  • Close correlation to civilians except for hgt/wgt of females
  • limited data in figs 4-1 & 4-2

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

anthropometry workstations
Anthropometry - Workstations
  • Should accommodate varying sizes & reaches
  • Adjustability is key

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

stressors
Stressors
  • Stress results when outside forces exceed person’s tolerance
  • Results in bodily/mental tension

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stressors1
Stressors
  • Sources of stress
    • Physiological
    • Biomechanical
    • Psychological

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fatigue
Fatigue
  • No precise definition
  • Fatigue refers to
    • General feelings of tiredness
    • Reduction in work output
    • Physiological conditions resulting from continued work activity

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manifestations of fatigue
Manifestations of Fatigue
  • Muscular soreness
  • Aches
  • Sleepiness
  • Mental confusion
  • Muscular tension
  • General weariness

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

fatigue1
Fatigue
  • Fatigue can result from physical or mental stressors
  • Mental Fatigue
    • Tiredness that occurs from mental rather than physical work

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physiological stressors
Physiological Stressors
  • Kinetic stress results when body is subjected to rapid accelerations
  • One example is vehicular maneuvers

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

rapid accelerations
Rapid Accelerations
  • Blood flow changes & may cause:
    • Loss peripheral vision
    • Illusions of motion
    • Total loss of vision
    • Loss of fine motor control
    • Unconsciousness

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

vibrations acoustic noise may be considered together because they are both mechanical oscillations
Vibrations & acoustic noise may be considered together because they are both mechanical oscillations

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

both may interfere with other sensory functions disrupt motor coordination actual feedback

Both may interfere with other sensory functions & disrupt motor coordination & actual feedback

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

vibrations noise
Vibrations & Noise
  • Persistent noise induces anxiety & irritation
  • Severe V&N may interfere with internal organs & CNS
    • Discomfort
    • Disability
    • Death

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

other types of physiological stressors
Other Types Of Physiological Stressors
  • Thermal - heat stroke
  • Atmospheric - decomp sick, anoxia
  • Chemical - inhalation/ingestion
  • Radiation - symptoms range from mild to death

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

other types of physiological stressors1
Other Types Of Physiological Stressors

Physical work overload - extreme muscular exertion affects coordination & strength can lead to muscle spasm or collapse

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other types of physiological stressors2
Other Types Of Physiological Stressors
  • Glare
    • annoyance,
    • discomfort
    • visual problem
  • Sleep deprivation - effects performance

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Can Adversely affect decision making process, may result in:
    • weariness
    • decreased strength
    • irritation
    • poor vision
    • hallucinations

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

psychological stressors
Psychological Stressors
  • Psychological Stressors may cause mental stress
  • Because tension may result in physiological problems...
  • may be unable to differentiate between physiological & psychological stressors

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

psychological stressors1
Psychological Stressors
  • Ergonomists do not attempt to eliminate all sources of stress
  • Not all stress is disruptive
  • Limited amounts of stress serve to motivate workers

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

psychological stressors2
Psychological Stressors
  • Too much concern or anxiety may cause operator to spend too much time focusing on selected displays & neglect other duties

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

monotony
Monotony
  • Monotony results from inactivity, boredom, repetitive tasks
  • Mind dulling effects of monotony can seriously degrade performance

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

monotony1
Monotony
  • Uneventful vigilance tasks are examples tasks that produce stress via monotony
  • Closely aligned with monotony is sensory deprivation
  • Occurs when person is isolated from any perceptual input

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

excessive task speed load
Excessive Task Speed/Load
  • …requirements can cause psychological & physical stress
  • This stress is associated with concern that task be completed successfully within time allotted

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

circadian rhythm
Circadian Rhythm
  • 24 hr cycle of night & day
  • Basis for our regulation of eating sleeping, working, socializing
  • Disruptions can serve as both psychological & physiological stressors

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

circadian rhythm1
Circadian Rhythm
  • Disruptions (changes in work shift) can result in autonomic nervous system changes & neuro endocrine changes that are stressful

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stress may also be the result of worker s life situation external to the work environment
Stress may also be the result of worker’s “life situation” external to the work environment

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nsc text1
NSC Text

End Of Chapter 4

SAFE4000; NSC Text Chap 4

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