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HACCP. Food Safety Plan. Definition of HACCP. A systematic approach to construct a food safety program designed to reduce the risk of foodborne hazards by focusing on each step of the food preparation process –from receiving to service. Controlling Hazards → Safe Food.

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Food Safety Plan

Definition of haccp
Definition of HACCP

  • A systematic approach to construct a food safety program designed to reduce the risk of foodborne hazards by focusing on each step of the food preparation process –from receiving to service.

Controlling hazards safe food
Controlling Hazards → Safe Food

  • Hazards involving food preparation, i.e., improper cooking of beef, chicken, eggs, etc.

  • Hazards that affect all foods, such as poor personal hygiene.

Controlling food preparation hazards
Controlling Food Preparation Hazards

  • Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs)

    • Cooking, cooling, hot/cold holding, reheating

  • Control/prevention

    • Time and temperature

Controlling all other hazards
Controlling All Other Hazards

  • Develop and Implement Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).

    • All activities except food preparation

  • Receiving, cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils, food storage, etc.

Step 1 develop and implement sops
Step 1: Develop and Implement SOPs

  • Step–by-step written instructions for food service tasks that affect food safety

Sample sops
Sample SOPs

  • Cooking Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)

  • Cooling PHF

  • Holding Hot and Cold PHF

  • Date Marking, Ready-to-eat (RTE), PHF

  • Personal Hygiene

  • Reheating PHF

  • Receiving Deliveries

  • Storing and Using Poisonous or Toxic Chemicals

  • Using Suitable Utensils When Handling RTE Foods

  • Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

  • Handwashing

Sops for your use
SOPs for your use:

  • USDA is developing SOPs, the finalversions posted at:


  • Iowa State University’s “Safe Food” resources


Step 2 classify all menu items using the process approach
Step 2: Classify all Menu Items using the “Process Approach ”

  • Categorizes food preparation into three broad categories based on how many times each menu item moves through the temperature danger zone (between 41°F and 135°F).

The division of foods is based on complete trips through the temperature danger zone

Complex Approach ”

Process 3

No Cook

Process 1

Same Day

Process 2

The Division of Foods is Based onComplete Trips through the Temperature Danger Zone








Step 2 classify all menu items
Step 2 Approach ”Classify all menu items

  • The “Process Approach” categories:

    • Process #1 – No Cook

    • Process #2 – Same Day Service

    • Process #3 – Complex Food Preparation

Process 1 no cook
Process #1 – No Cook Approach ”

  • The menu item does not go completely through the danger zone in either direction.

  • Examples: fresh fruit and vegetables, salad bar items.

Process 2 same day service
Process #2 – Approach ”Same Day Service

  • The menu item takes one complete trip through the danger zone (going up during cooking) and is served.


  • Anything that is cooked and served in the same day

Process 3 complex food preparation
Process #3- Approach ”Complex Food Preparation

  • The menu item goes through both heating and cooling, taking two or more complete trips through the danger zone.

  • These items are cooked, cooled and reheated.

Step 3 identify and document control measures and critical limits
Step 3 – Identify and document control measures and critical limits

  • Control measures prevent, eliminate, or reduce hazards.

    • Control measures include SOPs as well as the CCPs (cooking, cooling, reheating, holding) and the critical limits (times and temperatures) established in each of the three “processes”.

Example chicken
Example - Chicken critical limits

  • Process 1

    • We purchase pre-prepared chicken salad and hold it cold to be served on the salad bar or on sandwiches.

  • Process 2

    • We cook frozen or fresh chicken and serve it the same day.

  • Process 3

    • We cook frozen or fresh chicken, cool it and use it to make chicken salad from scratch or

    • We cook frozen or fresh chicken, serve it the same day, have leftovers, cool it down and on another day we heat it up and serve it.

Let s practice

Garden Salad critical limits

Grilled Ham & Cheese


Garlic Breadsticks

Sub Sandwich

Peach Cobbler


Pasta Salad

Hot Pocket


Tortilla Chips

Burrito (pre-prepared)


Sliced Tomato & Lettuce

Canned Pears


Let’s Practice!

Ccp for process 1 no cook
CCP for Process #1 – critical limitsNo Cook

  • Cold holding or limiting time in the danger zone to inhibit bacterial growth and toxin production.

    (Food that is held at room temperature for four hours must be discarded.)

Ccps for process 2 same day service
CCPs for Process #2 – Same Day Service critical limits

  • Cooking to destroy harmful bacteria and other pathogens.

  • Hot holding or limiting time in the danger zone to prevent the outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria.

Ccps for process 3 complex food preparation
CCPs for Process #3 – Complex Food Preparation critical limits

  • Cooking to destroy harmful bacteria & other pathogens.

  • Cooling to prevent the outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria.

  • Hot and cold holding or limiting time in the danger zone.

  • Reheating for hot holding.

Ccps and their critical limits
CCPs and their Critical Limits critical limits

  • Each CCP (cooking, cooling, reheating, holding) must include time and/or temperature limits.

    For example, when cooking chicken, the time/temperature limit is 165°F for 15 seconds.

Calibrating a bi metallic stemmed thermometer

When to Calibrate: critical limits


After extreme temperatures

After bumping or dropping

How to Calibrate:

Insert stem in ice water bath (without touching bottom or sides)

Adjust nut until needle indicates 32oF (freezing point)

Calibrating a Bi-Metallic Stemmed Thermometer

Calibration Nut----->


Ice Water Bath ----->

Cooling requirement

Two-stage Method critical limits

(6 Hours)

(i.e., products cooked day before)

70oF within 2 hours

41oF within 4 more hours

Take temperatures at 2 and 6 hour intervals to make sure that temperatures were reached.

Reheat above 165oF if food has not cooled to 70oF in 2 hours or 41oF in 6 hours.

Discard if more than 70oF after 2 hours or more than 41oF after 6 hours.

One-stage Method

(4 Hours)

(i.e., leftovers)

41oF within 4 hours

Take temperature after 4 hours to make sure that temperature was reached.

Reheat above 165oF if food has not cooled to 41oF in 4 hours.

Cooling Requirement

Documentation critical limits

  • You must document CCPs (heating, cooling, hot/cold holding, reheating) and Critical Limits (temperatures/times) for each menu item you sorted into the three “processes”.

  • HOW? Recipes and SOPs

Where to record process number

Write the process number on each recipe critical limits

Make a poster for each process and list the foods that belong in each


Process 1 – No Cook

Tossed Salad

Gelatin with Peaches






Process 2 – Same Day

Where to Record Process Number

  • Write the


    number on

    the menu

Recipes critical limits

  • Should include final and holding temperatures.

    • USDA Quantity Recipes for School Food Service


Bridging the gaps
Bridging the Gaps critical limits

  • SOPs for menu items that do not have recipes, cooling foods and reheating leftovers.

Step 4 monitoring
Step 4: Monitoring critical limits

  • Control measures (i.e., cooking times & temperatures) must be monitored and documented in writing.

    • How?

    • When and how often?

    • Who is responsible for monitoring?

Monitoring example
Monitoring Example critical limits

  • Cold foods must be kept at 41°F or below.

    • The temperature of the refrigerator must be recorded on a refrigeration temperature monitoring chart at least two times daily to make sure the temperature is 41°F or below.

Step 5 corrective actions
Step 5: Corrective Actions critical limits

  • Must be carried out immediately whenever a critical limit is not met.

    • Examples:

      • Continue to heat to required temperature

      • Rejecting food delivery

      • Discarding food held too long without temperature control

Corrective action examples
Corrective Action Examples critical limits

The temperature in the refrigerator is above 41°F


  • The equipment must be checked. The thermometer used to record the temperature should be calibrated regularly and checked to see if it is working properly.

  • Any PHF should be temped. If unable to determine if the food has been in the danger zone for less than 4 hours, discard.

Corrective action example
Corrective Action Example critical limits

The freezer temperature is 49°F when you arrive to work on Monday morning


  • Take temperature of food in freezer

  • Any food above 41°F must be discarded

  • Any foods below 41°F shall be transferred to a refrigerator immediately and used within 2-3 days (never re-freeze)

Step 6 keep records
Step 6 – Keep Records critical limits

  • Food Safety Plan & Training

  • Monitoring Temperatures of food, equipment & food storage areas and equipment

  • Calibration Records

  • Corrective Action

Examples of required documentation
Examples of Required Documentation critical limits

  • SOPs

  • Time and Temperature charts

  • Corrective Action records (when applicable)

  • Verification/Review records

  • Calibration records

  • Training logs

  • Receiving logs

Step 7 review revise food safety program periodically
Step 7: Review & Revise Food Safety Program Periodically critical limits

  • Ongoing monitoring

  • Periodic – at least yearly – to reflect facility or equipment changes (i.e., new equipment and menu items)

Factors contributing to your success
Factors Contributing to Your Success critical limits

  • Facility

  • Equipment

  • Managers

  • Employees

All employees should have
All Employees should have: critical limits

  • Initial food safety training

  • On-going food safety training

  • Record of training kept by district

  • Training standards monitored daily by manager

  • Review of SOP guidelines at least yearly

Haccp program requirements
HACCP Program Requirements critical limits

  • A written plan at each site that includes:

    • Documenting menu items in the appropriate “process” category.

    • Documenting Critical Control Points of food production.

    • Monitoring

    • Establishing and documenting corrective action.

    • Recordkeeping

    • Reviewing and revising the overall food safety program periodically.