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Energy Efficiency Design Index – An Update. Dr Zabi Bazari Ship Energy Services Manager Lloyd’s Register, London, UK. [email protected] RINA Lecture, 2 February 2012, London, UK. Content. Introduction EEDI formula and Attained EEDI Reference lines and Required EEDI EEDI verification

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Energy Efficiency Design Index – An Update

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Energy efficiency design index an update

Energy Efficiency Design Index – An Update

Dr Zabi Bazari

Ship Energy Services Manager

Lloyd’s Register, London, UK.

[email protected]

RINA Lecture, 2 February 2012, London, UK.


Content

Content

  • Introduction

  • EEDI formula and Attained EEDI

  • Reference lines and Required EEDI

  • EEDI verification

  • IMO workplan and outcome of January 2012 meeting

  • Likely impacts

  • Conclusions


Energy efficiency design index an update

Introduction


Imo initiatives for ghg emissions control

IMO initiatives for GHG emissions control

MBMs

Owners / Charterers

Ship owner / operator

IMO Initiatives

SEEMP

EEDI

EEOI

Shipyard

  • Regulatory status:

    • EEDI / SEEMP: Mandatory from 1st January 2013

    • EEOI: Voluntary

    • MBMs: Early discussions


New chapter 4 of marpol annex vi

New Chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI

IMO MEPC 62 in July 2011 agreed to a new Chapter 4 in MARPOL Annex VI entitled “Regulations on Energy Efficiency of Ships”.

This includes addition of new Regulations 19 to 23

Regulation 19 is on Application domain of Chapter 4

Regulations 20 is on “Attained EEDI”

Regulations 21 is on “Required EEDI”

Regulation 22 is on SEEMP

Regulation 23 is on “Technical co-operation and technology transfer”

There are quite a number of Guidelines in support of the above regulations.


Energy efficiency design index an update

Attained EEDI and Required EEDI


Attained eedi calculation formula mepc circ 681

Attained EEDI: Calculation formula (MEPC Circ.681)

Main Engine

Aux Engine (s)

Innovative Energy Eff. Power Gen. Technologies

Innovative Energy Eff. Prop. Technologies

EEDI =

fc.

[gCO2/(tonne.nm)]

Boilers are excluded from EEDI!


Eedi parameters

EEDI parameters

Ice class factor

Shaft Motor

Waste Heat

Energy Saving

EEDI =

fc

Main power:

PME=0.75MCR

Wave factor

Capacity factor

Carbon factor

Auxiliary power:

PME >=10000KW:

PAE=0.025Me+250

PME < 10000KW:

PAE=0.05Me

Capacity:

DWT:Bulk carriers,Containers,

Tankers,Gascarriers,cargoships,etc.

GTR:Passenger Ship

Attained Speed

[gCO2/(tonne.nm)]


Reference lines

Reference lines

Reference lines are ship specific.

They are part of Regulation 22 (in equation form).

All new ship types, for inclusion in regulation, require a new reference line.


Energy efficiency design index an update

Linear range

Reference Line

Cut Off

Required EEDI

  • Required EEDI: The regulatory limit for EEDI.

  • Required EEDI = (1 – X/100)*Reference Value

  • Where:

  • X is the Reduction Rate.

  • Reference Value is calculated fromReference Line.

Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI


Energy efficiency design index an update

Implementation stages and reduction rates

  • EEDI implementation phases are:

    • Phase 0 2013 – 2014

    • Phase 1 2015 – 2019

    • Phase 2 2020 – 2024

    • Phase 3 2025 – ……

  • Reduction rate for the above phases are as in diagram.


Ship types subject of current eedi regulations

Ship types subject of current EEDI regulations

* excluding ships with diesel-electric, turbine or hybrid propulsion


Energy efficiency design index an update

EEDI Verification process

Shipowner

Shipbuilder

Verifier

Pre-Verification

Basic Design , Tank Test*,

EEDI Calculation

Development of EEDI Technical File

Application for EEDI

pre-verification

Submission of EEDI Technical File

Verification:

- EEDI Technical File

- additional information

Issuance of

Statement of Compliance

Submission of additional information

Final Verification

Start of ship construction

Application for EEDI

verification

Verification:

- sea trial condition

- ship speed

- revised EEDI Technical File

Issuance of

IEEC (International Energy efficiency Certificate)

Sea Trial

Modification and Resubmission of EEDI Technical File

Delivery of ship

* To be conducted by a test organisation or a shipbuilder itself.


Major aspects of verification

Major aspects of verification

Verification of speed-power curve for Vref:

Tank test observation

Speed trial observation

Scaling method from “trial conditions” to “EEDI conditions”

Correction for environmental conditions.

Verification of “energy saving technologies”

Availability factors (feff)

Power levels

Verification of various correction factors:

Ice-class (fj)

Weather factor (fw)

Design capacity factor (fi)

Cubic capacity factor (fc)


Some other major verification challenges

Some other major verification challenges

  • Exact model?

  • Numerical tools for calculation, scaling, pre-verification, etc.?

  • Shipyards’ and tank test facilities’ proprietary data?

  • Uncertainly levels and if there is a need for formal uncertainty analysis?

  • How to ensure consistency amongst various organisations:

    • ROs

    • Shipyards

    • Tank test organisations


List of the eedi related guidelines

List of the EEDI-related Guidelines

Guideline for calculation of EEDI

Guidelines for survey and verification of EEDI

Guidelines for minimum power of ship for safe operation.

Guidelines for validation of ship electric power table (EPT).

Guidelines for verification of innovative technologies


Energy efficiency design index an update

EEDI Reduction Methods


Eedi reduction methods

EEDI reduction methods

MEPC60/4/35 Japan, Norway, US

Baseline

Average EEDI of current ships

(no effort for efficiency improvement)

(1) DWT enlargement

EEDI

Reduction rate

(2) Speed reduction

(3) Application of new technology

A: efficiency improvement

Efficiency improvement by design change

DWT

  • Capacity (deadweight) increase

  • Advanced technologies:

    • Existing/proven technologies

    • Emerging technologies

    • Renewable energy technologies

  • Alternative fuels:

    • LNG

  • Speed reduction


Eedi reduction likely options average vlcc

EEDI reduction likely options – Average VLCC


Energy efficiency design index an update

IMO GHG Future Work Plan


Work still to be done by the imo

Work still to be done by the IMO


Energy efficiency design index an update

Progress in Inter-sessional WG meeting

(9-13 January 2012)


Changes to eedi formula

Changes to EEDI formula

  • Cubic Capacity Factors for Chemical Tankers (fc):

    • Based on the ratio of summer deadweight to volumetric capacity (R)

    • To be calculated according to the formula fc = R^(-0.7) – 0.014, where fc = 1 when R = 0.98

  • Cubic Capacity Factor for LNG (fc)

    • To be calculated from Fc = R^(-0.56)

  • Design Capacity Factor for Voluntary Structural Enhancement (fiVSE).

  • Design Capacity Correction Factor for ships built to Common Structural Rules (fiCSR).


New guidelines non conventional ships etc

New guidelines, non-conventional ships, etc

  • New guidelines for verification of innovative technologies:

    • Japan presented draft guidelines

    • Dealing with wind, solar, heat recovery, etc.

    • For each of the above technologies, there will be guidelines for calculation and verification.

  • EEDI for Non-Conventional Ships

    • Reference line for cruise ships

    • Reference line for RoRo ships

    • Reference line for RoPax ships

  • Shaft generator:

    • Incorporation of a new formulation for shaft generator.

    • Also, cases where propulsion shaft power is limited and can be verified, there will be no need to use main engine power.


Energy efficiency design index an update

Impact of EEDI on Industry


Likely impacts

Likely impacts

More energy efficient ships and ship technologies

Slower speed ships

More use of alternative fuels

More expensive ships/marine transport (excluding fuel)

More optimised and complex designs with likely impacts on:

Reliability/safety

Maintainability

Likely modal shift of freight transport to land and air

EEDI will become commercially sensitive if used for:

Existing ships

Fuel efficiency-based chartering

Reward-based marine MBMs or financial incentives


Concluding remarks

Concluding Remarks

The EEDI regulations are now in place and will come into force from 1st January 2013.

A number of guidelines are under development and will be finalised in 2012 in support of the above.

Verification of EEDI pauses a number of major issues.

There are a number of solutions to reduce EEDI including alternative fuels, alternative technologies and reduced ship speed.

The EEDI impacts on shipping economics, safety and transportation competitiveness are still being investigated.

Overall, it is anticipated that the EEDI will have a big impact on future of shipping industry.


Any questions

Any questions?


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