Presidents of the united states
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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. GEORGE WASHINGTON. Whiskey Rebellion – farmer rebellion over Hamilton’s economic plan (tax); Washington ended quickly sending message armed resistance to gov’t not allowed Farewell Address- -no political parties and no foreign entanglements

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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES

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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES


GEORGE WASHINGTON

  • Whiskey Rebellion– farmer rebellion over Hamilton’s economic plan (tax); Washington ended quickly sending message armed resistance to gov’t not allowed

  • Farewell Address--no political parties and no foreign entanglements

  • Precedents– serve only two terms, Mr. President


JOHN ADAMS

  • XYZ Affair – tired to meet with France; they sent agents with demands we refused; fought an unofficial war with France after

  • Alien and Sedition Acts – took away rights of immigrants and silenced critics of government


THOMAS JEFFERSON

  • Democratic-Republican Party

  • Agrarian empire – farmers!

  • Louisiana Purchase – 1803bought from France for $15 million doubling size of US

  • Embargo Act – halted all trade attempting to solve issues at sea; hurt US economy and still ended up going to war with Britain


JAMES MADISON

  • War of 1812 – US vs. GB; US won

  • Star Spangled Banner – written after Battle of Fort McHenry by Francis Scott Key

  • Battle of New Orleans – Andrew Jackson hero

  • US begins to make own manufactured goods formerly imported from Britain


JAMES MONROE

  • Era of Good Feelings

  • Monroe Doctrine--Europe should not interfere in Latin America or the U.S.


JOHN QUINCY ADAMS

  • The “corrupt bargain” ruined his presidency and he only served 1 term


ANDREW JACKSON

  • Spoils system – giving gov. jobs to supporters

  • Indian Removal Act – Cherokee sue (Worcester v. Georgia) and win but Jackson has them removed - Trail of Tears

  • Nullification Crisis over Tariff of Abominations – south threaten to secede

  • Vetoed the National Bank charter, creating an economic panic


MARTIN VAN BUREN

  • Economic depression


WILLLIAM HENRY HARRISON

  • Won election on a log cabin campaign - “Tippecanoe and Tyler, too”

  • First president to die in office


JOHN TYLER

  • First Vice President to take over when a President died in office

  • Encouraged the annexation of Texas


JAMES K. POLK

  • Manifest Destiny

  • Oregon Country - 54°40´ or fight

  • Accomplished the annexation of Texas

  • The Mexican War – Polk provoked Mexico into the war to gain land in the west


TAYLOR, FILLMORE, PIERCE, BUCHANAN

  • Failed to stop the Civil War

    • Compromise of 1850, Kansas and Nebraska Act, etc


ABRAHAM LINCOLN

  • Republican Party

  • Civil War president

  • Emancipation Proclamation – freed slaves in the south

  • Gettysburg Address – dedicated cemetery in Gettysburg

  • 10% Reconstruction Plan – forgive South and put the country back together

  • First president to be assassinated


MANIFEST DESTINY


  • As the United States population grew, so did the need for more land.

  • More and more people moved west to find new economic opportunity.


WHY DID THE GOVERNMENT ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO MOVE WEST?

  • More farmland

  • Increase trade

  • Spread democracy

  • “Civilize” the native population


  • American’s of the 1800’s believed in Manifest Destiny--that it was God’s will that they settle the North American continent from ocean to ocean.


  • WHO IS IN THE WAY?


WESTERN TERRITORIAL ACQUISITIONS

  • Louisiana Purchase

    • 1803, France, $15 million, X2 country, Lewis and Clark, Sacagawea

  • Republic of Texas annexed

  • Mexican War led to the Mexican Cession

    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

      • California – 1849, Gold Rush, 49ers

      • Utah – Mormon Migration

  • Oregon Country divided with Britain

    • Mountain Men, Oregon Trail

  • Gadsden Purchase

  • Florida

    • Spain, Adams-Onis Treaty


  • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


    INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    • Machines do the work of people.


    HOW DID IT HAPPEN IN AMERICA?

    • IR came from England to New England--rivers, good ports, labor source

    • Free enterprise system encouraged the development of new businesses.


    HOW DID THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AFFECT AMERICAN LIFE?

    • People left farms and moved to cities for factory jobs.

    • Urban areas grew.


    INVENTIONS

    • Cotton gin, steam engine (steamboats and railroads), interchangeable parts and the assembly line.


    • Industrial workers suffered from long hours, low pay, and poor working conditions.


    REFORM MOVEMENTS


    REFORM MOVEMENTS

    • Many Americans in the 1800’s felt that life in the United States could be improved.


    ABOLITION

    • Get rid of slavery

    • Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Grimke sisters, Harriet Tubman.


    TEMPERANCE

    • No drinking alcohol


    WOMEN’S MOVEMENT

    • Wanted equal rights with men and suffrage

    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony

    • Seneca Falls Convention


    PRISON/TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL

    • Dorothea Dix


    TRANSENDENTALISTS

    • Stressed the relationship between humans and nature and the importance of individual conscience.

    • Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau


    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING

    • Religious movement to improve life in America.


    BACKGROUND TO THE CIVIL WAR

    SECTIONAL ISSUES THAT SPLIT THE COUNTRY


    TARIFFS

    • Taxes on imported goods.

    • NORTH--favored the tariff because it protected American business.

    • SOUTH--against the tariff because it made manufactured goods that farmers had to buy more expensive.


    SLAVERY

    • NORTH--had little effect on the economy; the North had mostly factories and businesses and small farms with no need for slaves.

    • SOUTH--dependent on slave labor because of the labor-intensive crops on plantations (tobacco and cotton).


    STATES’ RIGHTS vs. NATIONAL POWER--WHO IS SUPREME?

    • The Nullification crisis during the Jackson administration and the Kansas-Nebraska Act (popular sovereignty) raised a debate about states’ rights.


    • John C.Calhoun--South

    • Daniel Webster--North

    • Henry Clay--the Great Compromiser


    • As the U.S. gained more land (Manifest Destiny), territories began applying for statehood.

    • Both sides wanted to maintain a balance between slave and free states.

    • Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850.


    • As time went on, more events caused tension between the North and South.

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act, Fugitive Slave Act, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Dred Scott decision, John Brown’s raid, Election of 1860.


    • The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 resulted in the secession of South Carolina.


    • The Civil War began in April 1861 when Confederate forces fired upon Ft. Sumter, South Carolina.


    THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION


    • UNION--the North

    • CONFEDERACY--the South


    PEOPLE TO KNOW

    • Abraham Lincoln--president of the Union

    • Jefferson Davis--president of the Confederacy

    • U.S. Grant--commander of Union forces

    • Robert E. Lee--commander of Confederate forces


    CIVIL WAR TIMELINE

    • Firing on Ft. Sumter--war began

    • First Battle of Bull Run--first major battle of the war

    • Battle of Vicksburg--Union took control of the Mississippi River

    • Emancipation Proclamation--Lincoln ordered all slaves in the Confederate states were free


    TIMELINE, cont.

    • Battle of Gettysburg--stopped the Confederate invasion of the North

    • Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the Civil War

    • Assassination of Lincoln--by John Wilkes Booth five days after the surrender.


    RECONSTRUCTION

    • The period of time in U.S. history after the Civil War when the United States and the South were rebuilt.


    RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

    • 13th--abolished slavery

    • 14th--gave citizenship to freed slaves

    • 15th--guaranteed the right to vote to all black men


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