Sbi3u grade 11 biology
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SBI3U: Grade 11 Biology. Genetic processes. Big Ideas, Ministry Expectations. Genetic and genomic research can have social and environmental implications Variability and diversity of living organisms result from the distribution of genetic materials during the process of meiosis.

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Genetic processes

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Sbi3u grade 11 biology

SBI3U: Grade 11 Biology

Genetic processes


Big ideas ministry expectations

Big Ideas, Ministry Expectations

  • Genetic and genomic research can have social and environmental implications

  • Variability and diversity of living organisms result from the distribution of genetic materials during the process of meiosis


Misconceptions topics

Misconceptions – Topics

Genetic Technologies – greatest # of misconceptions

  • Genetic research works to cure disease, in reality the focus is in understanding to improve treatment


Misconceptions topics1

Misconceptions - Topics

Deterministic nature of genes –

  • 1 gene is always responsible for 1 trait OR 1 mutation always causes 1 disease

    • The discovery of genes that convey and determine a specific phenotype is often displayed in the media

    • i.e. “Turning Off Suspect Gene Makes Mice Smarter”

  • However, it is rare for a single gene to have complete control over a phenotype. Instead, multiple factors contribute to phenotype. Multiple genes often work together with the environment to determine ultimate phenotype.


Misconceptions topics2

Misconceptions - Topics

Nature of Genes and Genetic Material –

  • Lower organisms, including bacteria and fungi, often do not carry DNA due to the hierarchical organization of genetic material

  • Unable to accurately define DNA, genes, & chromosomes (terms used interchangeably)


Misconceptions topics3

Misconceptions – Topics

  • Genetic Basis of disease –

  • Confusion of “heredity” and “genetic” when describing diseases

  • Students completely misrepresented the genetic nature of specific illnesses

  • i.e. calling HIV an inherited disorder

  • In reality, while most illnesses have a genetic component, this does not make them hereditary


Misconceptions topics4

Misconceptions – Topics

Reproductive technologies –

  • In future, parents would have reproductive control to ‘improve’ and ‘design’ their offspring to create the ‘perfect child’

  • Reality is, this does not reflect the goals or ongoing work of genetics research


Misconceptions quotes from students

Misconceptions – Quotes from Students

“If you were to have three chromosomes instead of the normal two, that child will have Down syndrome.”

Correct conception:

  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Only an extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down Syndrome.


Misconceptions quotes from students1

Misconceptions – Quotes from Students

“Half of your DNA is determined by your mother’s side, and half is by your father. So, say, if you seem to look exactly like your mother, and had gotten all phenotypes from her, perhaps some DNA that codes for your body and how your organs run was copied from your father’s genetic makeup.”

Correct conception:

  • Each cell in the body contains two copies of each chromosome, and therefore each gene, one copy from the mother and the other from the father. Both alleles may contribute to all attributes/traits that are generally controlled. Moreover, most gene products (proteins) interact with other genes and do not act in isolation.


Misconceptions quotes from students2

Misconceptions – Quotes from Students

“Genes determine everything from your sex, and hair colour, to what diseases you may have and how high you will grow.”

Correct conception:

  • Genes are not necessarily deterministic. More frequently, environmental influences couples with genotype determined phenotype.


Misconceptions quotes from students3

Misconceptions – Quotes from Students

“If everyone on both sides of your family is tall, you are going to be tall. If half are tall and half are short, you have a 50/50 chance of being either tall or short. You also have the possibility of being somewhere in the middle.”

Correct conception:

  • This quotation appears to assume that single genes (perhaps taken from a simple Punnet square idea) determine height. Indeed, multiple genes, nutrition and environment all play a role.


Misconceptions quotes from students4

Misconceptions – Quotes from Students

“All humans have DNA, as do animals, plants, and most bacteria and fungi.”

Correct conception:

  • All living organisms, including bacteria and fungi, have DNA.


Misconceptions quotes from students5

Misconceptions – Quotes from Students

“In the future knowledge about genetics could help stop deadly diseases and cancers. However this will only help with diseases that are hereditary”

Correct conception:

  • Most illnesses have a genetic component without being hereditary. Therefore, a knowledge of genetics could have much further reach than this student recognizes. Indeed, the knowledge of the genetics of different viruses, for example, has resulted in vaccines for strains of influenza.


Reference

Reference

Mills Shaw, K. R., Van Horne, K., Zhang, H., & Boughman, J. (2008). Genetics Education: Innovations in Teaching and Learning Genetics; Essay Contest Reveals Misconceptions of High School Students in Genetics Contest. The Genetics Society of America , 1157-1168.


Connections to other units

Connections to other Units

  • Diversity of Living Things

    • Genetics determine the variation/diversity of all living things

  • Evolution

    • Genetic variances over periods of time affect the phenotype of species

  • Animals and Plants: structure and function

    • Amino acids and proteins determine the structure and function of organelles


18 day unit plan day 1

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 1

Topic

  • 4.1

  • Introduction (T/F);

  • Cell Division and Genetic Material

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to genetic processes, including, but not limited to: haploid, diploid, spindle, synapsis, gamete, zygote, heterozygous, homozygous, allele, plasmid, trisomy,

  • non-disjunction, and somatic cell [C]

  • D3.2 explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance


18 day unit plan day 2

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 2

Topic

  • 4.1

  • Cell Division and Genetic Material

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to genetic processes, including, but not limited to: haploid, diploid, spindle, synapsis, gamete, zygote, heterozygous, homozygous, allele, plasmid, trisomy,

  • non-disjunction, and somatic cell [C]

  • D3.2 explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

    Assessment

  • Entry Ticket 4.1


18 day unit plan day 3

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 3

Topic

  • 4.2

  • Sexual Reproduction

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to genetic processes, including, but not limited to: haploid, diploid, spindle, synapsis, gamete, zygote, heterozygous, homozygous, allele, plasmid, trisomy,

  • non-disjunction, and somatic cell [C]

  • D3.1 explain the phases in the process of meiosis in terms of cell division, the movement of

  • chromosomes, and crossing over of genetic material

  • D3.2 explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance


18 day unit plan day 4

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 4

Topic

  • 4.2

  • Sexual Reproduction

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D1.2 evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of some recent contributions to knowledge, techniques, and technologies related to genetic processes [IP, PR, AI, C]

  • D3.4 describe some genetic disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., non-disjunction

  • of chromosomes during meiosis) or other genetic mutations in terms of chromosomes affected,

  • physical effects, and treatments

    Assessment

  • Entry Ticket 4.2


18 day unit plan day 5

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 5

Topic

  • Activity 1

  • Wet Lab

  • Kiwi Cells

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D1.2 evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of some recent contributions to knowledge, techniques, and technologies related to genetic processes [IP, PR, AI, C]

  • D2.2 investigate the process of meiosis, using a microscope or similar instrument, or a computer simulation, and draw biological diagrams to help explain the main phases in the process [PR, AI, C]

    Assessment

  • Lab Assignment


18 day unit plan day 6

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 6

Topic

  • 5.1

  • Understanding Inheritance

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D3.2 explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

  • D3.3 explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance


18 day unit plan day 7

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 7

Topic

  • 5.2

  • Studying Genetic Crosses

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.3 use the Punnett square method to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes [PR, AI, C]

  • D3.3 explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance


18 day unit plan day 8

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 8

Topic

  • 5.2

  • Studying Genetic Crosses

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.3 use the Punnett square method to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes [PR, AI, C]

  • D3.3 explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

    Assessment

  • Entry Ticket 5.2


18 day unit plan day 9

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 9

Topic

  • 5.3

  • Following Patterns of Inheritance in Humans

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.3 use the Punnett square method to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes [PR, AI, C]

  • D3.3 explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance


18 day unit plan day 10

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 10

Topic

  • Activity 2Dry Lab

  • Dragon Activity

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D2.3 use the Punnett square method to solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes [PR, AI, C]

  • D3.2 explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

  • D3.3 explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance

    Assessment

  • Dragon Activity


18 day unit plan day 11

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 11

Topic

  • 4.3

  • Reproductive Strategies and Technologies

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D1.1 analyse, on the basis of research, some of the social and ethical implications of research in genetics and genomics (e.g., genetic screening, gene therapy, in vitro fertilization) [IP, PR, AI, C]

  • D1.2 evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of some recent contributions to knowledge, techniques, and technologies related to genetic processes (e.g., research into the cystic fibrosis gene; the use of safflowers to produce insulin for human use) [IP, PR, AI, C]

    Assessment

    Quiz 5.1-5.3


18 day unit plan day 12

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 12

Topic

  • 4.3

  • Reproductive Strategies and Technologies

    Curriculum Expectations

  • D1.1 analyse, on the basis of research, some of the social and ethical implications of research in genetics and genomics (e.g., genetic screening, gene therapy, in vitro fertilization) [IP, PR, AI, C]

  • D1.2 evaluate, on the basis of research, the importance of some recent contributions to knowledge, techniques, and technologies related to genetic processes (e.g., research into the cystic fibrosis gene; the use of safflowers to produce insulin for human use) [IP, PR, AI, C]

  • D3.5 describe some reproductive technologies (e.g., cloning, artificial insemination, in vitro

  • fertilization, recombinant DNA), and explain how their use can increase the genetic diversity of a species (e.g., farm animals, crops)


18 day unit plan day 13

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 13

Topic

  • Computer Lab

  • STSE – genetic technologies


18 day unit plan day 14

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 14

Topic

  • In Class Activity

  • GMO Debate;

  • Work Period

  • - STSE Project

    Assessment

  • Exit Ticket


18 day unit plan day 15

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 15

Topic

  • REVIEW

  • 4.1-5.3


18 day unit plan day 16

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 16

Topic

  • Work Period- STSE Project

    Assessment

  • Unit Test 4.1-5.3


18 day unit plan day 17 18

18 Day Unit Plan – Day 17/18

Topic

  • STSE Presentations

    Curriculum Expectations

  • A1.1 formulate relevant scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, or issues, make informed predictions, and/or formulate educated hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

  • A1.3 identify and locate a variety of print and electronic sources that enable them to address research topics fully and appropriately

  • A1.7 select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from a variety of appropriate sources, including electronic, print, and human sources, using suitable formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

  • A1.9 analyze the information gathered from research sources for logic, accuracy, reliability, adequacy, and bias

  • A1.10 draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions with reference to scientific knowledge

  • A1.11 communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

  • A1.12 use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI units, imperial units)

    Assessment

    STSE Assignment


Activity 1

Activity 1

Wet lab – DNA Extraction


Objective

OBJECTIVE

  • To extract DNA from kiwi fruit.


Materials

MATERIALS

  • ¼ of a Kiwi Fruit (skinned)

  • Ziploc Plastic bags

  • 100mL Beaker (2)

  • 1 tbsp. Transparent Liquid Dish Soap

  • ¼ tsp. Salt

  • 50mL Water

  • Stirring Rods

  • Filter

  • 25mL Ethanol (Ice Cold)

  • Pipette or Medicine Dropper

  • Micro Centrifuge


Procedure

PROCEDURE

  • Put ¼ of a Kiwi Fruit in a Ziploc Bag, seal the bag, and squish the kiwi with your fingers.

  • In a 100ml beaker, combine 1 tbsp. transparent liquid dish soap and ¼ tsp. Salt. Add 50ml water to the beaker and stir slowly to dissolve the salt and soap. Avoid making bubbles or foam.

  • Add this mixture to the kiwi fruit in the Ziploc bag.

  • Squish the kiwi and mixture together in the bag to combine. 

  • Rinse out the beaker and put a filter across the top.


Procedure continued

PROCEDURE continued

  • Gently pour the kiwi solution through the filter into the beaker until the beaker is ½ full of the solution.  

  • Holding the beaker slightly on an angle, pour ethanol onto the wall of the beaker to add it to the kiwi solution. Add ethanol until the beaker is ¾ full.

  • Let the mixture sit for a couple minutes and observe. Record your observations below.

  • Using the pipette, extract the precipitate into the micro centrifuge. (One per person.)

  • Clean-up:

    • Dispose of filters and Ziploc Bags

    • Rinse beakers, pipettes, and stirring rods

    • Return all materials to their original location


Discussion questions

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • Where can DNA be found in the cell?

    • The nucleus


Discussion questions1

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

2. Discuss the role of the soap on the cell. What is the purpose of soap in this lab?

  • Soap breaks down the fatty lipid bilayer of the cell membrane and nuclear membrane to release the DNA into the solution by disrupting the polar interactions that hold the cell membrane together. The soap forms compounds with the lipids which cause the, to precipitate out of the solution.


Discussion questions2

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

3. What is the purpose of salt in this lab?

  • Salt shields the negative phosphate ends of the DNA, allowing DNA to come together and precipitate our of the cold alcohol solution. Salt, when diluted in water, produces sodium chloride which precipitates the proteins and carbohydrates. This occurs because the sodium and chloride ions are more charged and much more polar than the proteins and carbohydrates, therefore they displace them out of the solution.


Discussion questions3

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

4. Why was the cold ethanol added to the kiwi solution?

  • The ethanol precipitates the DNA while leaving other substances in the solution.


Activity 2

Activity 2

Dry Lab – Design a Dragon


Overview

Overview

  • In this activity, you will design a dragon using pre-determined genotypes and phenotypes.


Let s get started

Let’s get started!

  • Determine the biological sex of your dragon by flipping a coin. Heads is female and tails is male. _____________________________


What will my dragon look like

What will my dragon look like?

  • For the rest of the activity, you will flip a coin to determine what characteristics your dragon will have.


Chromosome 1 and chromosome 2

Chromosome 1 and Chromosome 2

  • The traits determined by Chromosome 1 and Chromosome 2 are dominant, recessive, incomplete dominance or co-dominance and are outlined in the tables on the next slide.

  • Flip a coin to determine if the allele is dominant or recessive. Heads is dominant and tails is recessive. You will need to flip the coin twice since the above traits are determined by two alleles. Fill in the chart below.


Chromosome 1 and chromosome 21

Chromosome 1 and Chromosome 2


Fill in the chart below

Fill in the chart below


Design a dragon

Design a Dragon


Questions

QUESTIONS


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