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OUR Ecological Footprint - 2 1. Recycle; pay tax for it. 2. This week lab: Due: Homework 9: Pop. Problem Set Start: SDP-2 Read paper about project Xerox Abstract/Intro for group members + TA

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Our ecological footprint 2 1 recycle pay tax for it 2

OUR Ecological Footprint - 21. Recycle; pay tax for it.2.


This week lab: Due: Homework 9: Pop. Problem SetStart: SDP-2 Read paper about project Xerox Abstract/Intro for group members + TA

Complete Proposal WS 1 in labTo be returned by TA: Draft 1 SDP1Following week’s lab: Due: Draft 2 SDP1


Chapter 18 dynamics of predator prey interactions
Chapter 18: Dynamics of predator-prey interactions


Objectives
Objectives

  • Predator-prey synchronized cycles

  • How stabilize predator-prey interactions

  • Laboratory studies of spatial

    heterogeneity

  • Functional / numerical responses of

    predators to prey


Sample exam
Sample Exam ?

Birds, especially warblers, are primary predators of the insect spruce budworm, an invading pest of boreal forests. The ability of the predators to control these prey during a huge outbreak of the budworm was monitored.

  • Warblers showed a Type II functional response to increasing prey density. Illustrate this response in Fig. A. Explain the shape of the predator’s response.

    2) Warblers also show a numerical response to increasing prey density. Illustrate this response in Fig. B.


  • Which type of response, functional or numerical, is made by individual warblers?

  • Fig. C shows the total response of the warblers to increasing prey density. Were the predators able to control these prey? Explain.

    (On all three figures, the x axis label is:

    No. of insects/0.9m2 leaves

    Fig. A: y axis = No. of insects/stomach

    Fig B: y axis = No. nesting pairs/100 acres

    Fig C: y axis = Mortality due to predators (%).

    The curve in Fig. C goes sharply up at low density and slowly falls as density increases.


Predator and prey populations often increase and decrease in synchronized cycles predators lag prey
Predator and prey populations often increase and decrease in synchronized cycles; predators lag prey.


  • Predators eat prey--->reduce prey numbers

  • Predators go hungry---> their numbers drop

  • Few prey do better--->prey numbers rise

  • Predators have more food---> their numbers

    rise.

    Do prey control predators or vice versa?


Question what factors control the hare lynx population cycle
Question: What factors control the hare-lynx population cycle?

  • Hypothesis: Predation, food availability, or a combination of those two factors controls the cycle.

  • Null Hypothesis: They do NOT control the cycle.

  • Experimental Design??

  • Prediction: Hare populations in at least one type of manipulated plot will be higher than mean population in control plots.

  • Prediction of null H: Hare populations will be the same in all of the plots.


Controls

Fence;

no lynx

Controls

Both

Extra food

for hares


  • What is conclusion?

  • Do predation, food, or a combination of both factors control the hare-lynx cycle?



*** How can these measles cycles be explained?Who is predator and who is prey? Draw in the curve for the missing component.



How stabilize predator prey interactions with prey refuge and or immigration
How stabilize predator-prey interactions? system in the lab. ---with prey refuge and/or immigration

No sediment

Sediment

Immigration


Huffaker s experiment to get predator prey populations to persist without immigration
Huffaker’s experiment to get predator-prey system in the lab. populations to persist without immigration.


1 oranges clumped no stable cycles and extinction of prey
1) Oranges clumped---> system in the lab. no stable cycles and extinction of prey


2 oranges dispersed randomly predators slow to find prey prey survived longer

2) Oranges dispersed randomly---> predators slow to find prey--->prey survived longer.

3) Spatial heterogeneity --->stable cycles.


Predators exhibit 3 types of functional responses to increasing prey density
Predators exhibit 3 types of prey--->prey survived longer.functional responses to increasing prey density.


Functional response prey--->prey survived longer.: A change in rate of capture of prey by an individual predator as prey density changes.

  • Type I: Capture directly proportional

    to prey density

  • Type II: Capture levels off at high prey

    density (predator satiation)

  • Type III: as Type II, but is also low at low

    prey density

  • 1) heterogeneous habitat---> hiding places

  • 2) lack of learned search behavior

  • 3) switching to alternative prey


What type of functional response of kestrels to vole density
*** prey--->prey survived longer.What type of functional response of kestrels to vole density?


What type of functional response of wolves to moose
*** prey--->prey survived longer.What type of functional response of wolves to moose?


*** prey--->prey survived longer.What type of functional response?Predators switch to different prey in responseto fluctuations in prey density.


Switching to alternative prey occurs only when preferred prey density falls to low level
Switching to alternative prey prey--->prey survived longer. occurs only when preferred prey density falls to low level.


Predator satiation of prey--->prey survived longer. individual predators, then numerical response in population size of predation via population growth or immigration.


Numerical response of wolves to moose
Numerical response prey--->prey survived longer. of wolves to moose


Why didn t top down control limit spruce budworm devastation
Why didn’t prey--->prey survived longer.top-down control limit spruce budworm devastation?


*** prey--->prey survived longer.Is there a functional response? Numerical response? What is the total response of warblers to spruce budworm abundance? Does the warbler control its prey?


Objectives1
Objectives prey--->prey survived longer.

  • Predator-prey synchronized cycles

  • How stabilize predator-prey interactions? Laboratory studies of spatial

    heterogeneity

  • Functional / numerical responses of

    predators to prey


Vocabulary

Vocabulary prey--->prey survived longer.


Ch 19 competition

Ch 19 Competition prey--->prey survived longer.


Objectives2
Objectives prey--->prey survived longer.

  • Types of competition

  • Types of resources

  • Intraspecific competition and D-D regulation

  • Plants

  • Animals


Sample exam1
Sample exam ? prey--->prey survived longer.

The figure below illustrates the distribution of two species of buttercups along a transect across ridge (high land) and furrow (low valley) grassland.

  • In one sentence summarize the results.

  • Provide two alternative hypotheses (If…then) for the observed pattern.

  • Draw or describe one complete experiment that would test both hypotheses.

  • What specific results from the experiment would provide support for your hypothesis 1 above?


Figure for preceding
Figure for preceding ? prey--->prey survived longer.

Sp 1 peaks on furrow (F)

Sp 2 peaks on ridge (R )

F R F R F Distance along transcect (m)

No. of

plants


Competition
Competition prey--->prey survived longer.:

  • Use or defense of a limiting resource that reduces the availability of that resource to other individuals.


What are types of resources
*** prey--->prey survived longer.What are types of resources?

  • Plants

  • Abiotic

  • Biotic

  • Animals

  • Abiotic

  • Biotic

  • (A condition is NOT a resource.)


For prey--->prey survived longer.sessile animals, space is an important resource.For most plants, space is not considered a resource.


Consequences of competition

Consequences of competition: prey--->prey survived longer.

Superior competitor persists at lower resource levels.

Limits resources for growth, lx, mx.

D-D regulation of births, deaths--->

4) Population growth rate slows.


Superior competitors can persist at lower resource levels
Superior prey--->prey survived longer. competitors can persist at lower resource levels.


Types of competition
Types of competition prey--->prey survived longer.:

  • Exploitation vs. interference

  • Intraspecific vs. interspecific

  • If interspecific, closely related vs. distantly related


Competition may occur through prey--->prey survived longer.exploitation (indirect) of shared resources or (direct) interference(individuals defend resources actively).

exploit

interfere


Predict
***Predict: prey--->prey survived longer.

  • Is intra- or interspecific competition greater? Why?

  • Do closely or distantly related species compete more? Why?


Limiting resource if resource is scarce relative to demand
Limiting Resource prey--->prey survived longer.: If resource is scarce relative to demand.

  • Renewable resource:

  • constantly regenerated

  • e.g. prey, nutrients

  • Non-renewable resource:

  • occur in fixed amounts and can be

    fully re-used

  • e.g. space, hiding places


Liebig s law of the minimum populations are limited by the single resource that is most scarce
Liebig’s prey--->prey survived longer.Law of the Minimum: Populations are limited by the single resource that is most scarce.

  • A population increases until the supply of the limiting resource is insufficient; then growth stops.

  • Applies to resources that do NOTinteract to determine population growth rate.

  • How realistic is this ‘Law’?


Do these results support the law of the minimum explain
*** prey--->prey survived longer.Do these results support the Law of the Minimum? Explain.


N and p act synergistically to promote growth
N and P act prey--->prey survived longer.synergistically to promote growth.


Intraspecific competition density dependent population regulation

Intraspecific competition + prey--->prey survived longer.Density-dependent population regulation

Negative plant responses:

Growth

Reproduction

Survival


1 density dependence in plants decreases growth size hierarchy develops

1) Density-dependence in plants decreases prey--->prey survived longer.growth. Size hierarchy develops.

***What is the evolutionary consequence of a size hierarchy?

What is one assumption?


2 density dependence decreases some components of reproduction size at birth
2) Density-dependence decreases some components of prey--->prey survived longer.reproduction (size at birth).


3 density dependence increases mortality intraspecific competition causes self thinning
3) Density-dependence increases prey--->prey survived longer. mortality. Intraspecific competition causes “self- thinning”.

Biomass (g)


Logistic growth model
Logistic growth model prey--->prey survived longer.

Intraspecific

Competition results in

decelerating growth rate


Law of constant yield what are 2 conclusions

Law of prey--->prey survived longer.constant yield: *** What are 2 conclusions?

N


Intraspecific competition density dependent population regulation1
Intraspecific competition + density-dependent population regulation

  • Negative animal responses:

  • Growth

  • Time to sexual maturity

  • Birth rate

  • Death rate


Density dependent regulation via intraspecific competition of growth summarize 2 conclusions

Density-dependent regulation (via regulationintraspecific competition) of growth. ***Summarize 2 conclusions.


Density-dependent regulation of time to reach regulationsexual maturity. ***Does age or weight determine sexual maturity? Explain.




Objectives3
Objectives (probably) lower population growth.

  • Types of competition

  • Types of resources

  • Intraspecific competition and D-D regulation

  • Plants

  • Animals


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