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Normal Condition. Wind Flow Pattern. Warm. SE trade winds. Cold. MECHANISM. thermocline. Ocean Profile. upwelling. cool air. cool air. El Niño Condition. Wind Flow Pattern. SE trade winds. Warm. Cold. MECHANISM. thermocline. upwelling. Ocean Profile. Walker Circulation.

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MECHANISM

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Mechanism

Normal Condition

Wind Flow Pattern

Warm

SE trade winds

Cold

MECHANISM

thermocline

OceanProfile

upwelling


Mechanism1

cool air

cool air

El Niño Condition

Wind Flow Pattern

SE trade winds

Warm

Cold

MECHANISM

thermocline

upwelling

OceanProfile


Mechanism2

Walker Circulation

La Niña Condition

Wind Flow Pattern

cool air

Warm

SE trade winds

L

H

Cold

MECHANISM

OceanProfile

thermocline


Effects

EFFECTS


Precipitation

Blue circles indicate that during El Niño there was, on average, more rain than normal.

EFFECTS

Red circles indicate drought during El Niño.

PRECIPITATION


Mechanism

Europe

North Mexico

North-east Brazil

March-May

June-

August

Indonesia


Mechanism

September-

November

Spain

India

Philippines

Sri Lanka

East

Africa

Indonesia

Uruguay

Australia

Chile

South

America

Florida

Philippines

Mexico

December-

February

Indonesia

Ecuador

South

Africa

Peru

South

Brazil

Uruguay


Temperature

EFFECTS

Red circles denote locations that on average are warmer during El Niño and cooler during La Niña.

Blue circles are colder during El Niño and/or warmer during La Niña. The size of the circles is a measure of the strength of the relationship.

TEMPERATURE


Mechanism

North

America

March-

May

South-east

America

Mexico

Canada

East Asia

South

America

West Africa

India

June-

August


Mechanism

September-

November

India

South America

Australia

North America

South America

December-

February

Southern

Africa

Australia


World changing effects of la ni a

WORLD CHANGING EFFECTS OF LA NIÑA


Mechanism

La Niña's Typical Effect on Peru's Weather Cycles

To the North, Montana's

Climate Patterns are Also Affected


Mechanism

Farther North, La Niña Cools Canada's Weather Cycles

Drought in East Africa

Also Due to La Niña


Impact of el nino by region

Impact of El Nino by Region


Impact

In Australia, the impact event of El Niño has not been as strong as anticipated.

In Indonesia, late-arriving rains delayed the normal October/November rice planting and caused a reduction in rice production potential.

In Malaysia, rainfall has been below normal but adequate for rice production.

In Thailand, below normal rainfall has lowered water reserves for the second rice crop.

In the Philippines, localized dryness has reduced corn and rice yields.

Impact


Impact1

In the Republic of South Africa, November/December corn planting was delayed due to insufficient rainfall.

In Zimbabwe, a hot, dry December

In Tanzania and Kenya, drought earlier in the crop year

In India past El Niño brought dry weather across northwest India

In the Central America the major El Niño impact is nearly over as their rainy season has ended.

Impact


Severe droughts in the philippines

1982-1983

drought damage to rice and corn cost more than P700 million

450,000 hectares of land were affected

among the severely hit provinces were Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, Northern Visayas and Western Mindanao

1992-1993

drought damage set back the agricultural sector by P4.1 billion

478,000 metric tons of corn were destroyed

among the worst hit were South Cotabato, Isabela, Bukidnon, Maguindanao, North Cotabato and Cagayan

1997-1998

dry spell between June1997-1998; effects continued to be felt through September 1998

El Niño struck as the country was enjoying a continuous four-year growth

damage to agriculture amounted to P8.46 billion

16 regions were affected

Severe droughts in the Philippines


Mitigation

El Niño

early warnings

pre-emptive actions

- setting up disaster assistance for farmers

- issuing drought insurance

- making changes to tax and food import policies

- building up strategic food stocks

- encouraging shifts in planting patterns

planting of early maturing varieties of crops.

La Niña

identification and mapping of areas that are prone to flood and vulnerable to erosion and landslides.

construction of 990 units of small farm reservoirs (SFRs) for harvesting rainwater and surface runoff

MITIGATION


Mitigation1

Satellite

Ocean buoys

Recent technological advances have made it possible to monitor, diagnose, and predict El Niño and La Niña events in near-real time. Some of the major technologies used are:

MITIGATION


Mitigation2

Radiosondes

Super computers

MITIGATION


Conclusions recommendations

Geophysical and Socio-economic settings have multi-dimensional influences on El Niño and La Niña impacts. Therefore, it should be duly considered in conducting any sort of impact study on El Niño and La Niña, and in undertaking any intervention to cope with disaster problems.

There should be an adequate assessments about and monitoring of hazards, disasters and vulnerabilities, so that the need for prevention is accurately identified and disasters defined.

There is need for a clear and comprehensive national disaster policy, which will address the total disaster management spectrum, including El Niño and La Niña considerations of all aspects of preparedness. Within this policy, there must be a readiness on the part of the government to institutionalize preventive measures.

TheGovernment undertake the following initiatives:

To formulate a comprehensive plan for disaster management, disaster policy and disaster actions at the earliest possible time.

  To design an appropriate and enforceable legal mechanism for dealing with all types of natural disaster

  To develop appropriate technology and ensure the collection of relevant data on disaster through the use of satellites and the introduction of a regular system of delivering information to the public through television, radio and other mass media.

Conclusions & Recommendations


Thank you for listening

Reporters

Thankyouforlistening!!!

Gumisad, Lourdes

Navarro, Mary Joy


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