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1. USING CONTEXT CLUES
2. Context Clues
Aids in discovering meanings of unknown words
Clues may be words, phrases, or sentences surrounding the unknown word
3. Context Clues include: 1. Semantic Clues are derived from the meaning of the words co-occuring with the unknown word.
a. Definition Clue A word may be directly defined in the context
Ex: The register is the book in which the names of the people are kept.
4. b. The Appositive Clue may offer a synonym or description of the word
Ex: Euthanasia, mercy killing in plain language, is a very controversial issue.
5. c. Comparision or Contrast Clue may give away the words meaning
Ex: Like her surprised mother, Mila was also taken aback by the news.
She is not lazy to study. On the contrary, she is very diligent.
6. d. Explanation Clue
Ex: Lucys unusual timidity bothered her parents. They wondered why she would not even want to talk to any visitor. She would rather lock herself to her room. In school, her teachers were complaining too, why she was too shy or withdrawn to join any class activity.
7. 2. Syntactic Clues - are contained in the grammar of our language. These clues will help the reader discover that the word is a noun, an action word, etc.
Ex: An ogler ogled (looked at with amorous intentions) ogledly(flirtatiously).
SEMANTIC CLUES are used together to unlock meaning of unknown words.
8. 3.Presentation Clues refer to the other aids that the author may use such as:
a. Use of footnotes
b. Use of types of prints, e.g. boldface, italics
c. Use of visuals, e.g diagrams, tables, graphs, pictures
d. Organisational devices, e.g. indention, use of headings and sub-headings, etc.
9. EXERCISE 1: Determine the meaning of each underlined word by using context clues.
1. The witness gave a wrong statement. The lawyer refuted it.
a. disapproved b. changed c. erased
2. Attempts to solve the problems were sporadic, not well planned.
a. excellent b. spontaneous c. scattered
10. 3. Let us be inquisitive. Let us ask questions why things are done this way or that way.
a. accurate b. smart c. questioning
4. The meticulous professor checked the test papers herself. No wonder, there was not a single error in the scoring.
a. bright b. careful c. intelligent
11. 5. I told you about my plan already, but I will reiterate it now.
a. repeat b. ask c. explain
6. Ecumenism could herald a new kind of Christian brotherhood.
a. mean b. introduce c. allow
12. 7. The housing project was meant to alleviate the miserable housing condition of the poor.
a. end b. worsen c. lessen
8. You tell his innate characteristics, not the acquired ones.
a. bad b. inborn c. good
13. 9. The dean is a gregarious person, always seeking and enjoying the company of others.
a. happy b. sociable c. strict
10. The labourers were given an intensive training before they were allowed to work on the delicate project.
a. more serious b. easier c. more enjoyable
14. EXERCISE 2: Determine the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. Write your answers.
1. The cryptic message, which looks as mysterious and secretive as it is, can hardly be read.
2. In the alphabet, c precedes d. _____________________________________________
15. 3. I play a dual role in the family. I am both father and mother to my sisters.
4. The manager revokes privileges when employees become less efficient.
16. 5. The ugly little girl perceived herself as beautiful because her mother told her so.
6. Isnt it wonderful for parents to produce siblings who are very much different from one another? _____________________________________________
17. 7. After the operation, the basketball player no longer played basketball. He was only allowed to engage in sedentary games.
8. You may use short quotations but not long excerpts.
18. 9. I like to work with sincere people. I abhor hypocrites.
10. His feigned illness made the teacher excuse his absences.
19. USING CONTEXT CLUES Context Clues include:
1. Semantic Clues
c. Comparison or Contrast
2. Syntactic Clues
3. Presentation Clues